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Table 1

Metabolic health parameters and physical fitness

VariablesBaselinePost 16 weeksPaired differencesP value
Metabolic parameters     
 BMI (kg/m221.5 (19.1, 26.5) 21.6 (19.0, 26.5) −0.1 (−0.5, 0.1) 0.08 
 BMI z score 1.23 (0.79, 2.00) 1.13 (0.46, 2.00) −0.05 (−0.18, 0) 0.003* 
 Percent body fat (%) 32.8 (28.0, 40.0) 31.6 (23.6, 39.8) −1.5 (−3.6, 0) 0.008* 
 Waist circumference (cm) 74.0 (66.5, 83.5) 76.0 (64.1, 83.5) 0 (−2.5, 2.1) 0.91 
 Waist circumference z score 0.13 (−0.13, 0.63) 0.03 (−0.40, 0.69) 0 (−0.26, 0.11) 0.23 
 Sagittal abdominal (cm) 17.0 (16.0, 19.8) 17.8 (15.3, 19.5) 0 (−1.0, 0.85) 0.21 
 HbA1c (%) 5.8 (5.6, 5.9) 5.3 (5.1, 5.5) −0.5 (−0.6, −0.2) 0.0017** 
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 40 (38, 41) 34 (32, 37) −5.5 (−6.6, −2.2) 0.0017** 
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)# 0.98 (0.81, 1.56) 1.10 (0.73, 1.60) 0 (−0.07, 0.49) 0.41 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)# 3.78 (3.47, 4.03) 3.80 (3.47, 4.16) 0 (−0.10, 0.28) 0.65 
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 1.86 (1.66, 2.33) 2.02 (1.66, 2.33) 0 (−0.16, 0.28) 0.57 
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 1.22 (0.96, 1.45) 1.16 (0.98, 1.40) 0 (−0.13, 0) 0.06 
 Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 2.43 (2.17, 2.92) 2.56 (2.28, 3.13) 0 (−0.05, 0.26) 0.17 
 SBP (mmHg) 106 (100, 112) 102 (98, 108) 0 (−8, 0) 0.16 
 SBP z score 0.25 (−0.27, 0.95) −0.06 (−0.50, 0.18) −0.07 (−0.82, 0) 0.13 
 DBP (mmHg) 68 (60, 70) 64 (58, 70) −2 (−8, 0) 0.01* 
 DBP z score 0.53 (0, 0.88) 0.14 (−0.40, 0.54) −0.24 (−0.73, 0) 0.01* 
Physical fitness     
 6-Min walk (m) 647.88 (568.45, 731.95) 685.80 (614.17, 797.33) 30.66 (0, 216.81) 0.01* 
 Right handgrip (kg) 18.0 (14.0, 26.0) 19.0 (16.0, 26.0) 1.0 (0, 2.0) 0.01* 
 Left handgrip (kg) 18.0 (14.0, 23.5) 18.0 (15.0, 21.0) 0 (0, 1.0) 0.93 
 Handgrip combined (kg) 36.0 (28.0, 46.5) 36.0 (30.0, 46.0) 1.5 (0, 3.0) 0.07 
 Shuttle run (s) 9.083 (9.008, 11.003) 9.057 (8.064, 10.065) 0 (−0.960, 0.035) 0.21 
 Sit-and-reach (cm) 19.0 (11.5, 27.0) 27.0 (20.0, 31.0) 3.7 (0, 10.8) 0.006* 
VariablesBaselinePost 16 weeksPaired differencesP value
Metabolic parameters     
 BMI (kg/m221.5 (19.1, 26.5) 21.6 (19.0, 26.5) −0.1 (−0.5, 0.1) 0.08 
 BMI z score 1.23 (0.79, 2.00) 1.13 (0.46, 2.00) −0.05 (−0.18, 0) 0.003* 
 Percent body fat (%) 32.8 (28.0, 40.0) 31.6 (23.6, 39.8) −1.5 (−3.6, 0) 0.008* 
 Waist circumference (cm) 74.0 (66.5, 83.5) 76.0 (64.1, 83.5) 0 (−2.5, 2.1) 0.91 
 Waist circumference z score 0.13 (−0.13, 0.63) 0.03 (−0.40, 0.69) 0 (−0.26, 0.11) 0.23 
 Sagittal abdominal (cm) 17.0 (16.0, 19.8) 17.8 (15.3, 19.5) 0 (−1.0, 0.85) 0.21 
 HbA1c (%) 5.8 (5.6, 5.9) 5.3 (5.1, 5.5) −0.5 (−0.6, −0.2) 0.0017** 
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 40 (38, 41) 34 (32, 37) −5.5 (−6.6, −2.2) 0.0017** 
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)# 0.98 (0.81, 1.56) 1.10 (0.73, 1.60) 0 (−0.07, 0.49) 0.41 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)# 3.78 (3.47, 4.03) 3.80 (3.47, 4.16) 0 (−0.10, 0.28) 0.65 
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 1.86 (1.66, 2.33) 2.02 (1.66, 2.33) 0 (−0.16, 0.28) 0.57 
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 1.22 (0.96, 1.45) 1.16 (0.98, 1.40) 0 (−0.13, 0) 0.06 
 Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)# 2.43 (2.17, 2.92) 2.56 (2.28, 3.13) 0 (−0.05, 0.26) 0.17 
 SBP (mmHg) 106 (100, 112) 102 (98, 108) 0 (−8, 0) 0.16 
 SBP z score 0.25 (−0.27, 0.95) −0.06 (−0.50, 0.18) −0.07 (−0.82, 0) 0.13 
 DBP (mmHg) 68 (60, 70) 64 (58, 70) −2 (−8, 0) 0.01* 
 DBP z score 0.53 (0, 0.88) 0.14 (−0.40, 0.54) −0.24 (−0.73, 0) 0.01* 
Physical fitness     
 6-Min walk (m) 647.88 (568.45, 731.95) 685.80 (614.17, 797.33) 30.66 (0, 216.81) 0.01* 
 Right handgrip (kg) 18.0 (14.0, 26.0) 19.0 (16.0, 26.0) 1.0 (0, 2.0) 0.01* 
 Left handgrip (kg) 18.0 (14.0, 23.5) 18.0 (15.0, 21.0) 0 (0, 1.0) 0.93 
 Handgrip combined (kg) 36.0 (28.0, 46.5) 36.0 (30.0, 46.0) 1.5 (0, 3.0) 0.07 
 Shuttle run (s) 9.083 (9.008, 11.003) 9.057 (8.064, 10.065) 0 (−0.960, 0.035) 0.21 
 Sit-and-reach (cm) 19.0 (11.5, 27.0) 27.0 (20.0, 31.0) 3.7 (0, 10.8) 0.006* 

Median (interquartile range), at baseline and 16 weeks, and paired sample differences shown. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

*

P < 0.05 (nominally significant);

**

P < 0.002 (significant after correction for multiple comparisons).

#

Nonfasting lipid panel.

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