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TABLE 1.

Peripheral Hormonal Signals Released as Adaptations to a Reduced Energy Intake and That Regulate Food Intake and Energy Expenditure (10,12–15)

Primary Site of Hormone ReleasePrimary Action↑ or ↓ With Reduced Energy Intake
Gastrointestinal tract 
Ghrelin (stomach) Stimulates hunger ↑ 
GLP-1 (intestinal mucosa) Reduces food and calorie intake ↑ 
GIP (intestinal mucosa) Promotes energy storage ↑ 
Cholecystokinin (small intestine) Promotes satiety ↓ 
Peptide YY (small bowel and colon) Promotes satiety ↓ 
Pancreas 
Insulin Slows fat metabolism ↓ 
PP Decreases appetite and food intake ↑ 
Adipose tissue 
Leptin (white and brown fat cells) Increases appetite ↓ 
Primary Site of Hormone ReleasePrimary Action↑ or ↓ With Reduced Energy Intake
Gastrointestinal tract 
Ghrelin (stomach) Stimulates hunger ↑ 
GLP-1 (intestinal mucosa) Reduces food and calorie intake ↑ 
GIP (intestinal mucosa) Promotes energy storage ↑ 
Cholecystokinin (small intestine) Promotes satiety ↓ 
Peptide YY (small bowel and colon) Promotes satiety ↓ 
Pancreas 
Insulin Slows fat metabolism ↓ 
PP Decreases appetite and food intake ↑ 
Adipose tissue 
Leptin (white and brown fat cells) Increases appetite ↓ 
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