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TABLE 1

Characteristics of HAPO participants*

Maternal characteristics  
    Age (years) 19,885 (29.2 ± 5.8) 
    Education (years) 18,223 (12.9 ± 3.4) 
    Pre-pregnant BMI 18,200 (23.8 ± 5.0) 
    BMI (kg/m2) 19,885 (27.5 ± 5.0) 
    MAP (mmHg) 19,885 (80.7 ± 8.2) 
    FPG (mmol/l) 19,885 (4.5 ± 0.4) 
    1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 19,885 (7.5 ± 1.7) 
    2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 19,885 (6.2 ± 1.3) 
    Gestational age (weeks) 19,885 (27.8 ± 1.8) 
    Ethnicity  
        White, non-Hispanic 9,189 (46.2) 
        Black, non-Hispanic 2,279 (11.5) 
        Hispanic 1,774 (8.9) 
        Asian 6,181 (31.1) 
        Other 462 (2.3) 
    Prenatal smoking (any) 1,217 (6.1) 
    Prenatal alcohol use (any) 1,272 (6.4) 
    Family history of diabetes 4,411 (22.2) 
    Parity (prior delivery ≥20 weeks) 10,408 (52.3) 
Newborn characteristics  
    Gestational age (weeks) 19,885 (39.4 ± 1.6) 
    Birth weight (g) 19,884 (3,308 ± 505) 
    Length (cm) 19,496 (49.8 ± 2.4) 
    Head circumference (cm) 19,723 (34.2 ± 1.5) 
    Flank skin fold (mm) 17,159 (3.9 ± 1.0) 
    Triceps skin fold (mm) 17,136 (4.1 ± 0.9) 
    Subscapular skin fold (mm) 17,115 (4.2 ± 1.0) 
    Sum of skin folds (mm) 17,100 (12.3 ± 2.6) 
    Body fat (%) 17,050 (11.3 ± 3.7) 
    Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l) 19,885 (1.0 ± 0.6) 
Male 10,235 (51.5) 
Maternal characteristics  
    Age (years) 19,885 (29.2 ± 5.8) 
    Education (years) 18,223 (12.9 ± 3.4) 
    Pre-pregnant BMI 18,200 (23.8 ± 5.0) 
    BMI (kg/m2) 19,885 (27.5 ± 5.0) 
    MAP (mmHg) 19,885 (80.7 ± 8.2) 
    FPG (mmol/l) 19,885 (4.5 ± 0.4) 
    1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 19,885 (7.5 ± 1.7) 
    2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l) 19,885 (6.2 ± 1.3) 
    Gestational age (weeks) 19,885 (27.8 ± 1.8) 
    Ethnicity  
        White, non-Hispanic 9,189 (46.2) 
        Black, non-Hispanic 2,279 (11.5) 
        Hispanic 1,774 (8.9) 
        Asian 6,181 (31.1) 
        Other 462 (2.3) 
    Prenatal smoking (any) 1,217 (6.1) 
    Prenatal alcohol use (any) 1,272 (6.4) 
    Family history of diabetes 4,411 (22.2) 
    Parity (prior delivery ≥20 weeks) 10,408 (52.3) 
Newborn characteristics  
    Gestational age (weeks) 19,885 (39.4 ± 1.6) 
    Birth weight (g) 19,884 (3,308 ± 505) 
    Length (cm) 19,496 (49.8 ± 2.4) 
    Head circumference (cm) 19,723 (34.2 ± 1.5) 
    Flank skin fold (mm) 17,159 (3.9 ± 1.0) 
    Triceps skin fold (mm) 17,136 (4.1 ± 0.9) 
    Subscapular skin fold (mm) 17,115 (4.2 ± 1.0) 
    Sum of skin folds (mm) 17,100 (12.3 ± 2.6) 
    Body fat (%) 17,050 (11.3 ± 3.7) 
    Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l) 19,885 (1.0 ± 0.6) 
Male 10,235 (51.5) 

Data are n (mean ± SD) or n (%).

*

Participants with a cord serum C-peptide measurement.

Measured at the OGTT.

Babies with gestational age 36–44 weeks at birth.

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