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TABLE 2

Relationship between maternal glucose and sum of skin folds >90th percentile*

n>90th percentileModel IModel II
FPG (mmol/l)     
    <4.2 3,340 177 (5.3) 1.00 1.00 
    4.2–4.4 6,270 480 (7.7) 1.48 (1.24–1.77) 1.39 (1.16–1.66) 
    4.5–4.7 5,186 504 (9.7) 1.92 (1.61–2.30) 1.66 (1.38–1.99) 
    4.8–4.9 2,287 278 (12.2) 2.47 (2.03–3.01) 2.00 (1.64–2.45) 
    5.0–5.2 1,556 259 (16.6) 3.57 (2.92–4.37) 2.72 (2.20–3.36) 
    5.3–5.5 576 119 (20.7) 4.65 (3.62–5.99) 3.37 (2.59–4.38) 
    ≥5.6 174 46 (26.4) 6.42 (4.44–9.29) 4.71 (3.22–6.89) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.52 (1.45–1.59) 1.39 (1.33–1.47) 
1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.8 3,482 212 (6.1) 1.00 1.00 
    5.9–7.3 6,258 483 (7.7) 1.29 (1.09–1.52) 1.22 (1.03–1.45) 
    7.4–8.6 5,007 468 (9.3) 1.59 (1.34–1.88) 1.50 (1.26–1.78) 
    8.7–9.5 2,324 310 (13.3) 2.37 (1.98–2.85) 2.22 (1.84–2.69) 
    9.6–10.7 1,570 245 (15.6) 2.85 (2.35–3.46) 2.63 (2.14–3.22) 
    10.8–11.7 536 103 (19.2) 3.67 (2.84–4.74) 3.38 (2.59–4.41) 
    ≥11.8 212 42 (19.8) 3.81 (2.64–5.49) 3.57 (2.46–5.20) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.44 (1.37–1.51) 1.42 (1.35–1.49) 
2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.0 3,537 209 (5.9) 1.00 1.00 
    5.1–6.0 6,135 496 (8.1) 1.40 (1.18–1.66) 1.32 (1.11–1.56) 
    6.1–6.9 4,948 481 (9.7) 1.71 (1.45–2.03) 1.60 (1.35–1.90) 
    7.0–7.7 2,556 352 (13.8) 2.54 (2.13–3.04) 2.38 (1.98–2.86) 
    7.8–8.7 1,444 198 (13.7) 2.53 (2.06–3.11) 2.39 (1.93–2.95) 
    8.8–9.8 576 90 (15.6) 2.95 (2.26–3.84) 2.80 (2.13–3.69) 
    ≥9.9 193 37 (19.2) 3.78 (2.57–5.55) 3.59 (2.42–5.33) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.37 (1.31–1.44) 1.36 (1.30–1.43) 
n>90th percentileModel IModel II
FPG (mmol/l)     
    <4.2 3,340 177 (5.3) 1.00 1.00 
    4.2–4.4 6,270 480 (7.7) 1.48 (1.24–1.77) 1.39 (1.16–1.66) 
    4.5–4.7 5,186 504 (9.7) 1.92 (1.61–2.30) 1.66 (1.38–1.99) 
    4.8–4.9 2,287 278 (12.2) 2.47 (2.03–3.01) 2.00 (1.64–2.45) 
    5.0–5.2 1,556 259 (16.6) 3.57 (2.92–4.37) 2.72 (2.20–3.36) 
    5.3–5.5 576 119 (20.7) 4.65 (3.62–5.99) 3.37 (2.59–4.38) 
    ≥5.6 174 46 (26.4) 6.42 (4.44–9.29) 4.71 (3.22–6.89) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.52 (1.45–1.59) 1.39 (1.33–1.47) 
1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.8 3,482 212 (6.1) 1.00 1.00 
    5.9–7.3 6,258 483 (7.7) 1.29 (1.09–1.52) 1.22 (1.03–1.45) 
    7.4–8.6 5,007 468 (9.3) 1.59 (1.34–1.88) 1.50 (1.26–1.78) 
    8.7–9.5 2,324 310 (13.3) 2.37 (1.98–2.85) 2.22 (1.84–2.69) 
    9.6–10.7 1,570 245 (15.6) 2.85 (2.35–3.46) 2.63 (2.14–3.22) 
    10.8–11.7 536 103 (19.2) 3.67 (2.84–4.74) 3.38 (2.59–4.41) 
    ≥11.8 212 42 (19.8) 3.81 (2.64–5.49) 3.57 (2.46–5.20) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.44 (1.37–1.51) 1.42 (1.35–1.49) 
2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.0 3,537 209 (5.9) 1.00 1.00 
    5.1–6.0 6,135 496 (8.1) 1.40 (1.18–1.66) 1.32 (1.11–1.56) 
    6.1–6.9 4,948 481 (9.7) 1.71 (1.45–2.03) 1.60 (1.35–1.90) 
    7.0–7.7 2,556 352 (13.8) 2.54 (2.13–3.04) 2.38 (1.98–2.86) 
    7.8–8.7 1,444 198 (13.7) 2.53 (2.06–3.11) 2.39 (1.93–2.95) 
    8.8–9.8 576 90 (15.6) 2.95 (2.26–3.84) 2.80 (2.13–3.69) 
    ≥9.9 193 37 (19.2) 3.78 (2.57–5.55) 3.59 (2.42–5.33) 
    Continuous 19,389 1,863 (9.6) 1.37 (1.31–1.44) 1.36 (1.30–1.43) 

Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the glucose category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

*

Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks), and parity.

Number in the glucose category with the sum of skin folds >90th percentile (% proportion in the glucose category with sum of skin folds >90th percentile).

Glucose higher by 1 SD (0.4 mmol/l for FPG, 1.7 mmol/l for 1-h plasma glucose, 1.3 mmol/l for 2-h plasma glucose).

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