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TABLE 3

Relationship between maternal glucose and percent body fat >90th percentile*

n>90th percentileModel IModel II
FPG (mmol/l)     
    <4.2 3,336 208 (6.2) 1.00 1.00 
    4.2–4.4 6,255 478 (7.6) 1.24 (1.05–1.47) 1.16 (0.98–1.38) 
    4.5–4.7 5,174 499 (9.6) 1.61 (1.36–1.90) 1.39 (1.17–1.65) 
    4.8–4.9 2,274 295 (13.0) 2.24 (1.86–2.70) 1.83 (1.51–2.21) 
    5.0–5.2 1,545 263 (17.0) 3.09 (2.54–3.74) 2.36 (1.92–2.89) 
    5.3–5.5 570 101 (17.7) 3.24 (2.51–4.19) 2.34 (1.79–3.05) 
    ≥5.6 173 48 (27.7) 5.77 (4.02–8.29) 4.29 (2.95–6.24) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.47 (1.41–1.54) 1.35 (1.28–1.42) 
1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.8 3,466 219 (6.3) 1.00 1.00 
    5.9–7.3 6,230 495 (7.9) 1.28 (1.09–1.51) 1.24 (1.05–1.47) 
    7.4–8.6 5,003 495 (9.9) 1.63 (1.38–1.92) 1.63 (1.37–1.93) 
    8.7–9.5 2,317 308 (13.3) 2.27 (1.89–2.73) 2.30 (1.91–2.78) 
    9.6–10.7 1,563 221 (14.1) 2.44 (2.00–2.97) 2.45 (1.99–3.02) 
    10.8–11.7 535 105 (19.6) 3.62 (2.81–4.66) 3.75 (2.87–4.88) 
    ≥11.8 213 49 (23.0) 4.43 (3.13–6.27) 4.77 (3.33–6.83) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.42 (1.35–1.48) 1.44 (1.37–1.52) 
2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.0 3,521 226 (6.4) 1.00 1.00 
    5.1–6.0 6,114 522 (8.5) 1.36 (1.16–1.60) 1.30 (1.10–1.53) 
    6.1–6.9 4,934 483 (9.8) 1.58 (1.34–1.86) 1.54 (1.30–1.83) 
    7.0–7.7 2,551 334 (13.1) 2.20 (1.84–2.62) 2.20 (1.83–2.64) 
    7.8–8.7 1,439 197 (13.7) 2.31 (1.89–2.83) 2.38 (1.93–2.93) 
    8.8–9.8 575 88 (15.3) 2.63 (2.02–3.43) 2.79 (2.13–3.68) 
    ≥9.9 193 42 (21.8) 4.06 (2.81–5.86) 4.42 (3.03–6.47) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.33 (1.27–1.39) 1.35 (1.29–1.42) 
n>90th percentileModel IModel II
FPG (mmol/l)     
    <4.2 3,336 208 (6.2) 1.00 1.00 
    4.2–4.4 6,255 478 (7.6) 1.24 (1.05–1.47) 1.16 (0.98–1.38) 
    4.5–4.7 5,174 499 (9.6) 1.61 (1.36–1.90) 1.39 (1.17–1.65) 
    4.8–4.9 2,274 295 (13.0) 2.24 (1.86–2.70) 1.83 (1.51–2.21) 
    5.0–5.2 1,545 263 (17.0) 3.09 (2.54–3.74) 2.36 (1.92–2.89) 
    5.3–5.5 570 101 (17.7) 3.24 (2.51–4.19) 2.34 (1.79–3.05) 
    ≥5.6 173 48 (27.7) 5.77 (4.02–8.29) 4.29 (2.95–6.24) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.47 (1.41–1.54) 1.35 (1.28–1.42) 
1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.8 3,466 219 (6.3) 1.00 1.00 
    5.9–7.3 6,230 495 (7.9) 1.28 (1.09–1.51) 1.24 (1.05–1.47) 
    7.4–8.6 5,003 495 (9.9) 1.63 (1.38–1.92) 1.63 (1.37–1.93) 
    8.7–9.5 2,317 308 (13.3) 2.27 (1.89–2.73) 2.30 (1.91–2.78) 
    9.6–10.7 1,563 221 (14.1) 2.44 (2.00–2.97) 2.45 (1.99–3.02) 
    10.8–11.7 535 105 (19.6) 3.62 (2.81–4.66) 3.75 (2.87–4.88) 
    ≥11.8 213 49 (23.0) 4.43 (3.13–6.27) 4.77 (3.33–6.83) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.42 (1.35–1.48) 1.44 (1.37–1.52) 
2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)     
    ≤5.0 3,521 226 (6.4) 1.00 1.00 
    5.1–6.0 6,114 522 (8.5) 1.36 (1.16–1.60) 1.30 (1.10–1.53) 
    6.1–6.9 4,934 483 (9.8) 1.58 (1.34–1.86) 1.54 (1.30–1.83) 
    7.0–7.7 2,551 334 (13.1) 2.20 (1.84–2.62) 2.20 (1.83–2.64) 
    7.8–8.7 1,439 197 (13.7) 2.31 (1.89–2.83) 2.38 (1.93–2.93) 
    8.8–9.8 575 88 (15.3) 2.63 (2.02–3.43) 2.79 (2.13–3.68) 
    ≥9.9 193 42 (21.8) 4.06 (2.81–5.86) 4.42 (3.03–6.47) 
    Continuous 19,327 1,892 (9.8) 1.33 (1.27–1.39) 1.35 (1.29–1.42) 

Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the glucose category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

*

Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks), and parity.

Number in the glucose category with percent body fat >90th percentile (% proportion in the glucose category with percent body fat >90th percentile).

Glucose higher by 1 SD (0.4 mmol/l for FPG, 1.7 mmol/l for 1-h plasma glucose, 1.3 mmol/l for 2-h plasma glucose).

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