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TABLE 5

Relationship between cord serum C-peptide and neonatal anthropometrics

Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)nNo. with outcomeModel IModel II
Birth weight >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,911 131 (4.5) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 6,530 392 (6.0) 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 1.26 (1.03–1.55) 
    0.9–1.2 5,899 614 (10.4) 2.47 (2.03–2.99) 2.21 (1.82–2.70) 
    1.3–1.5 2,077 283 (13.6) 3.35 (2.70–4.15) 2.89 (2.32–3.60) 
    1.6–2.1 1,639 333 (20.3) 5.41 (4.37–6.69) 4.68 (3.77–5.82) 
    2.2–3.0 571 140 (24.5) 6.89 (5.32–8.93) 5.62 (4.31–7.33) 
    ≥3.1 242 62 (25.6) 7.31 (5.21–10.25) 6.72 (4.75–9.51) 
    Total 19,869 1,955 (9.8)   
Sum of skin folds >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,412 117 (4.9) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,647 369 (6.5) 1.37 (1.11–1.70) 1.27 (1.03–1.58) 
    0.9–1.2 5,145 513 (10.0) 2.17 (1.77–2.67) 1.92 (1.56–2.37) 
    1.3–1.5 1,821 267 (14.7) 3.37 (2.69–4.23) 2.84 (2.26–3.57) 
    1.6–2.1 1,409 265 (18.8) 4.54 (3.61–5.71) 3.74 (2.97–4.72) 
    2.2–3.0 485 101 (20.8) 5.16 (3.87–6.88) 4.00 (2.99–5.36) 
    ≥3.1 181 46 (25.4) 6.68 (4.56–9.80) 5.57 (3.78–8.21) 
    Total 17,100 1,678 (9.8)   
Percent body fat >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,399 119 (5.0) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,630 370 (6.6) 1.35 (1.09–1.67) 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 
    0.9–1.2 5,140 513 (10.0) 2.12 (1.73–2.61) 1.87 (1.52–2.31) 
    1.3–1.5 1,817 276 (15.2) 3.43 (2.74–4.30) 2.88 (2.30–3.62) 
    1.6–2.1 1,403 269 (19.2) 4.54 (3.62–5.70) 3.77 (2.99–4.75) 
    2.2–3.0 485 121 (25.2) 6.46 (4.90–8.51) 5.02 (3.79–6.66) 
    ≥3.1 181 43 (23.8) 5.97 (4.05–8.81) 5.06 (3.41–7.52) 
    Total 17,050 1,726 (10.0)   
Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)nNo. with outcomeModel IModel II
Birth weight >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,911 131 (4.5) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 6,530 392 (6.0) 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 1.26 (1.03–1.55) 
    0.9–1.2 5,899 614 (10.4) 2.47 (2.03–2.99) 2.21 (1.82–2.70) 
    1.3–1.5 2,077 283 (13.6) 3.35 (2.70–4.15) 2.89 (2.32–3.60) 
    1.6–2.1 1,639 333 (20.3) 5.41 (4.37–6.69) 4.68 (3.77–5.82) 
    2.2–3.0 571 140 (24.5) 6.89 (5.32–8.93) 5.62 (4.31–7.33) 
    ≥3.1 242 62 (25.6) 7.31 (5.21–10.25) 6.72 (4.75–9.51) 
    Total 19,869 1,955 (9.8)   
Sum of skin folds >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,412 117 (4.9) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,647 369 (6.5) 1.37 (1.11–1.70) 1.27 (1.03–1.58) 
    0.9–1.2 5,145 513 (10.0) 2.17 (1.77–2.67) 1.92 (1.56–2.37) 
    1.3–1.5 1,821 267 (14.7) 3.37 (2.69–4.23) 2.84 (2.26–3.57) 
    1.6–2.1 1,409 265 (18.8) 4.54 (3.61–5.71) 3.74 (2.97–4.72) 
    2.2–3.0 485 101 (20.8) 5.16 (3.87–6.88) 4.00 (2.99–5.36) 
    ≥3.1 181 46 (25.4) 6.68 (4.56–9.80) 5.57 (3.78–8.21) 
    Total 17,100 1,678 (9.8)   
Percent body fat >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,399 119 (5.0) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,630 370 (6.6) 1.35 (1.09–1.67) 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 
    0.9–1.2 5,140 513 (10.0) 2.12 (1.73–2.61) 1.87 (1.52–2.31) 
    1.3–1.5 1,817 276 (15.2) 3.43 (2.74–4.30) 2.88 (2.30–3.62) 
    1.6–2.1 1,403 269 (19.2) 4.54 (3.62–5.70) 3.77 (2.99–4.75) 
    2.2–3.0 485 121 (25.2) 6.46 (4.90–8.51) 5.02 (3.79–6.66) 
    ≥3.1 181 43 (23.8) 5.97 (4.05–8.81) 5.06 (3.41–7.52) 
    Total 17,050 1,726 (10.0)   

Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the cord C-peptide category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths); No. with outcome = number in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome (% proportion in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

*

Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks for skin folds and body fat), and parity.

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