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TABLE 6

Relationship between cord serum C-peptide and individual skin folds

Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)nNo. with outcomeModel IModel II
Flank skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,421 135 (5.6) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,664 374 (6.6) 1.20 (0.98–1.47) 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 
    0.9–1.2 5,167 496 (9.6) 1.80 (1.48–2.19) 1.61 (1.32–1.96) 
    1.3–1.5 1,826 267 (14.6) 2.90 (2.33–3.60) 2.48 (1.99–3.09) 
    1.6–2.1 1,413 227 (16.1) 3.24 (2.59–4.06) 2.70 (2.15–3.39) 
    2.2–3.0 487 98 (20.1) 4.27 (3.22–5.65) 3.39 (2.55–4.51) 
    ≥3.1 181 33 (18.2) 3.78 (2.49–5.72) 3.17 (2.08–4.82) 
    Total 17,159 1,630 (9.5)   
Triceps skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,422 123 (5.1) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,655 405 (7.2) 1.44 (1.17–1.77) 1.35 (1.10–1.66) 
    0.9–1.2 5,157 537 (10.4) 2.17 (1.77–2.66) 1.94 (1.58–2.38) 
    1.3–1.5 1,825 269 (14.7) 3.23 (2.59–4.04) 2.77 (2.21–3.47) 
    1.6–2.1 1,411 237 (16.8) 3.77 (3.00–4.74) 3.17 (2.51–3.99) 
    2.2–3.0 485 96 (19.8) 4.61 (3.46–6.15) 3.68 (2.75–4.93) 
    ≥3.1 181 44 (24.3) 6.00 (4.08–8.82) 5.12 (3.47–7.56) 
    Total 17,136 1,711 (10.0)   
Subscapular skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,415 109 (4.5) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,648 366 (6.5) 1.47 (1.18–1.83) 1.35 (1.09–1.69) 
    0.9–1.2 5,151 498 (9.7) 2.26 (1.83–2.80) 1.99 (1.60–2.47) 
    1.3–1.5 1,823 269 (14.8) 3.66 (2.90–4.62) 3.05 (2.41–3.86) 
    1.6–2.1 1,412 245 (17.4) 4.44 (3.51–5.63) 3.60 (2.83–4.58) 
    2.2–3.0 485 101 (20.8) 5.56 (4.16–7.45) 4.23 (3.14–5.69) 
    ≥3.1 181 44 (24.3) 6.79 (4.60–10.03) 5.54 (3.73–8.23) 
    Total 17,115 1,632 (9.5)   
Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)nNo. with outcomeModel IModel II
Flank skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,421 135 (5.6) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,664 374 (6.6) 1.20 (0.98–1.47) 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 
    0.9–1.2 5,167 496 (9.6) 1.80 (1.48–2.19) 1.61 (1.32–1.96) 
    1.3–1.5 1,826 267 (14.6) 2.90 (2.33–3.60) 2.48 (1.99–3.09) 
    1.6–2.1 1,413 227 (16.1) 3.24 (2.59–4.06) 2.70 (2.15–3.39) 
    2.2–3.0 487 98 (20.1) 4.27 (3.22–5.65) 3.39 (2.55–4.51) 
    ≥3.1 181 33 (18.2) 3.78 (2.49–5.72) 3.17 (2.08–4.82) 
    Total 17,159 1,630 (9.5)   
Triceps skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,422 123 (5.1) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,655 405 (7.2) 1.44 (1.17–1.77) 1.35 (1.10–1.66) 
    0.9–1.2 5,157 537 (10.4) 2.17 (1.77–2.66) 1.94 (1.58–2.38) 
    1.3–1.5 1,825 269 (14.7) 3.23 (2.59–4.04) 2.77 (2.21–3.47) 
    1.6–2.1 1,411 237 (16.8) 3.77 (3.00–4.74) 3.17 (2.51–3.99) 
    2.2–3.0 485 96 (19.8) 4.61 (3.46–6.15) 3.68 (2.75–4.93) 
    ≥3.1 181 44 (24.3) 6.00 (4.08–8.82) 5.12 (3.47–7.56) 
    Total 17,136 1,711 (10.0)   
Subscapular skin fold >90th percentile*     
    ≤0.5 2,415 109 (4.5) 1.00 1.00 
    0.6–0.8 5,648 366 (6.5) 1.47 (1.18–1.83) 1.35 (1.09–1.69) 
    0.9–1.2 5,151 498 (9.7) 2.26 (1.83–2.80) 1.99 (1.60–2.47) 
    1.3–1.5 1,823 269 (14.8) 3.66 (2.90–4.62) 3.05 (2.41–3.86) 
    1.6–2.1 1,412 245 (17.4) 4.44 (3.51–5.63) 3.60 (2.83–4.58) 
    2.2–3.0 485 101 (20.8) 5.56 (4.16–7.45) 4.23 (3.14–5.69) 
    ≥3.1 181 44 (24.3) 6.79 (4.60–10.03) 5.54 (3.73–8.23) 
    Total 17,115 1,632 (9.5)   

Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the cord C-peptide category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths), No. with outcome = number in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome (% proportion in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

*

Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks), and parity.

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