Skip to Main Content
Table 1

HRs of the association between the use of antibiotics during pregnancy and childhood type 1 diabetes

ExposureHR (95% CI) for type 1 diabetes, unadjusted (N = 92,012)HR (95% CI) for type 1 diabetes, adjusted* (N = 75,629)
Antibiotics during pregnancy   
 Yes 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 
 No 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotic courses during pregnancy   
 1 1.00 (0.76–1.31) 0.97 (0.71–1.31) 
 2 0.93 (0.55–1.57) 0.82 (0.45–1.51) 
 ≥3 0.48 (0.15–1.49) 0.36 (0.09–1.44) 
 0 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in first trimester   
 Yes 0.92 (0.63–1.14) 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in second trimester   
 Yes 1.01 (0.72–1.41) 0.89 (0.60–1.32) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in third trimester   
 Yes 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 0.81 (0.53–1.23) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics during pregnancy by type, ever users   
 Penicillins, β-lactam antibacterials (J01C) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 
 Sulfonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) 1.03 (0.61–1.74) 0.81 (0.43–1.53) 
 Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (J01F) 0.73 (0.32–1.63) 0.74 (0.30–1.79) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics during pregnancy by type, only users   
 Penicillins, β-lactam antibacterials (J01C) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.93 (0.69–1.27) 
 Sulfonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) § § 
 Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (J01F) 0.67 (0.28–1.61) 0.64 (0.24–1.72) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Narrow- or broad-spectrum antibiotics during pregnancy   
 Narrow-spectrum antibiotics 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 0.95 (0.69–1.31) 
 Broad-spectrum antibiotics 0.86 (0.57–1.28) 0.79 (0.50–1.25) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Type of broad-spectrum antibiotics during pregnancy, ever users   
 Ampicillin (J01CA01, J01CA02, J01CA06) 0.80 (0.41–1.55) 0.86 (0.42–1.74) 
 Amoxicillin (J01CA04, J01CR02) § § 
 Sulfamethizole (J01EB02) 1.04 (0.62–1.74) 0.82 (0.43–1.54) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
ExposureHR (95% CI) for type 1 diabetes, unadjusted (N = 92,012)HR (95% CI) for type 1 diabetes, adjusted* (N = 75,629)
Antibiotics during pregnancy   
 Yes 0.95 (0.74–1.22) 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 
 No 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotic courses during pregnancy   
 1 1.00 (0.76–1.31) 0.97 (0.71–1.31) 
 2 0.93 (0.55–1.57) 0.82 (0.45–1.51) 
 ≥3 0.48 (0.15–1.49) 0.36 (0.09–1.44) 
 0 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in first trimester   
 Yes 0.92 (0.63–1.14) 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in second trimester   
 Yes 1.01 (0.72–1.41) 0.89 (0.60–1.32) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics in third trimester   
 Yes 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 0.81 (0.53–1.23) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics during pregnancy by type, ever users   
 Penicillins, β-lactam antibacterials (J01C) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 
 Sulfonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) 1.03 (0.61–1.74) 0.81 (0.43–1.53) 
 Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (J01F) 0.73 (0.32–1.63) 0.74 (0.30–1.79) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Antibiotics during pregnancy by type, only users   
 Penicillins, β-lactam antibacterials (J01C) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.93 (0.69–1.27) 
 Sulfonamides and trimethoprim (J01E) § § 
 Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (J01F) 0.67 (0.28–1.61) 0.64 (0.24–1.72) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Narrow- or broad-spectrum antibiotics during pregnancy   
 Narrow-spectrum antibiotics 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 0.95 (0.69–1.31) 
 Broad-spectrum antibiotics 0.86 (0.57–1.28) 0.79 (0.50–1.25) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
Type of broad-spectrum antibiotics during pregnancy, ever users   
 Ampicillin (J01CA01, J01CA02, J01CA06) 0.80 (0.41–1.55) 0.86 (0.42–1.74) 
 Amoxicillin (J01CA04, J01CR02) § § 
 Sulfamethizole (J01EB02) 1.04 (0.62–1.74) 0.82 (0.43–1.54) 
 No antibiotics during pregnancy 1.00 1.00 
*

The HRs were adjusted for maternal prepregnancy BMI, paternal BMI, maternal age at conception, socioeconomic status, parity, maternal diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, birth weight, and gestational weight gain.

N is the total number of individuals included in the analyses.

Analyses based on subgroups who had only used the same type of antibiotics; these women were compared with women who had not used antibiotics during pregnancy.

§

Too few cases for analysis.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal