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Table 1

Adjusted* linear regression coefficients for associations of glucose tolerance status during pregnancy and offspring’s overall and central adiposity as well as glycemic indices at early adolescence

Male offspringFemale offspring
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Overall adiposity     
 BMI, z score (N = 439) (N = 441) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.20 (−0.18, 0.57) 0.09 (−0.25, 0.44) 0.30 (−0.00, 0.60) 0.14 (−0.13, 0.41) 
  GIGT −0.17 (−0.67, 0.32) −0.26 (−0.72, 0.20) 0.26 (−0.37, 0.90) 0.25 (−0.32, 0.81) 
  GDM 0.08 (−0.37, 0.53) −0.12 (−0.54, 0.30) 0.50 (0.04, 0.96) 0.12 (−0.29, 0.54) 
 Sum of skinfolds, mm (N = 438) (N = 440) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.49 (−4.42, 5.40) −0.88 (−5.42, 3.66) 4.84 (1.06, 8.63) 3.00 (−0.38, 6.39) 
  GIGT −0.93 (−7.41, 5.55) −2.17 (−8.15, 3.80) 1.98 (−5.96, 9.91) 1.96 (−5.12, 9.04) 
  GDM 2.71 (−3.20, 8.61) −0.11 (−5.63, 5.41) 0.59 (−5.12, 6.31) −3.74 (−8.93, 1.45) 
 DXA whole-body fat, % (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.29 (−3.32, 3.89) 0.28 (−3.08, 3.65) 3.39 (1.27, 5.51) 1.92 (−0.01, 3.83) 
  GIGT 0.26 (−4.17, 4.70) −0.56 (−4.71, 3.58) 1.65 (−3.80, 7.09) 1.92 (−2.94, 6.78) 
  GDM 2.39 (−1.87, 6.66) 0.14 (−3.95, 4.22) 1.37 (−2.11, 4.85) −1.10 (−4.29, 2.09) 
 DXA fat mass index, kg/m2 (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.19 (−1.60, 1.21) −0.19 (−1.48, 1.09) 1.38 (0.44, 2.31) 0.63 (−0.17, 1.44) 
  GIGT −0.07 (−1.80, 1.66) −0.43 (−2.01, 1.16) 0.26 (−2.13, 2.66) 0.37 (−1.67, 2.41) 
  GDM 1.27 (−0.39, 2.94) 0.27 (−1.29, 1.84) 0.61 (−0.92, 2.14) −0.76 (−2.09, 0.58) 
Central adiposity     
 Waist circumference, cm (N = 439) (N = 441) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 1.58 (−2.75, 5.91) 0.39 (−3.64, 4.42) 3.02 (−0.15, 6.20) 1.35 (−1.42, 4.12) 
  GIGT 0.24 (−5.48, 5.95) −0.81 (−6.11, 4.50) 1.76 (−4.89, 8.41) 1.58 (−4.21, 7.37) 
  GDM 2.71 (−2.50, 7.91) 0.43 (−4.47, 5.33) 2.38 (−2.41, 7.18) −1.77 (−6.01, 2.48) 
 DXA truncal fat mass, kg (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.22 (−1.99, 1.55) −0.22 (−1.85, 1.40) 1.70 (0.53, 2.88) 0.78 (−0.24, 1.80) 
  GIGT 0.06 (−2.11, 2.24) −0.37 (−2.38, 1.63) 0.32 (−2.70, 3.34) 0.45 (−2.13, 3.03) 
  GDM 1.20 (−0.89, 3.30) −0.07 (−2.04, 1.90) 1.01 (−0.93, 2.94) −0.72 (−2.41, 0.97) 
 DXA truncal to peripheral fat ratio (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.00 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.00 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.05 (0.01, 0.09) 0.03 (−0.01, 0.07) 
  GIGT −0.02 (−0.08, 0.04) −0.03 (−0.08, 0.03) 0.00 (−0.10, 0.10) 0.00 (−0.09, 0.10) 
  GDM 0.02 (−0.03, 0.08) 0.00 (−0.06, 0.05) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.00 (−0.06, 0.07) 
 Skinfold ratio (SS:TR) (N = 438) (N = 440) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.05 (−0.13, 0.04) −0.06 (−0.14, 0.02) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.03 (−0.04, 0.09) 
  GIGT 0.01 (−0.10, 0.12) −0.00 (−0.11, 0.11) 0.02 (−0.11, 0.15) 0.02 (−0.11, 0.15) 
  GDM 0.01 (−0.09, 0.11) −0.03 (−0.13, 0.07) −0.00 (−0.10, 0.09) −0.04 (−0.13, 0.06) 
Glycemic indices     
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −3.8 (−12.3, 4.8) −3.9 (−12.5, 4.7) 1.5 (−2.8, 5.8) 0.7 (−3.6, 5.0) 
  GIGT −4.6 (−17.4, 8.2) −4.6 (−17.5, 8.2) −5.9 (−14.1, 3.3) −5.9 (−15.0, 3.2) 
  GDM −0.2 (−11.5, 11.1) −0.7 (−12.3, 10.9) −7.2 (−14.8, 0.5) −9.6 (−17.3, −1.9) 
 Fasting insulin, μU/mL (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 14.9 (−13.5, 52.7) 12.6 (−14.8, 48.8) 9.5 (−11.6, 35.6) 7.0 (−13.4, 32.3) 
  GIGT 1.9 (−33.4, 56.1) 2.0 (−32.8, 54.8) 15.4 (−27.0, 82.4) 16.9 (−25.5, 83.3) 
  GDM 23.9 (−14.9, 80.4) 13.1 (−22.4, 65.0) −7.2 (−36.4, 35.5) −17.9 (−43.9, 20.2) 
 HOMA-IR (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 11.5 (−16.1, 48.2) 9.2 (−17.3, 44.2) 11.7 (−10.2, 38.9) 8.4 (−12.5, 34.3) 
  GIGT 0.0 (−34.7, 53.2) 0.0 (−34.1, 51.7) 8.8 (−31.8, 73.7) 10.3 (−30.1, 74.1) 
  GDM 26.2 (−13.4, 83.9) 14.9 (−21.2, 67.6) −13.5 (−41.2, 27.2) −25.3 (−49.2, 10.0) 
Male offspringFemale offspring
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Overall adiposity     
 BMI, z score (N = 439) (N = 441) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.20 (−0.18, 0.57) 0.09 (−0.25, 0.44) 0.30 (−0.00, 0.60) 0.14 (−0.13, 0.41) 
  GIGT −0.17 (−0.67, 0.32) −0.26 (−0.72, 0.20) 0.26 (−0.37, 0.90) 0.25 (−0.32, 0.81) 
  GDM 0.08 (−0.37, 0.53) −0.12 (−0.54, 0.30) 0.50 (0.04, 0.96) 0.12 (−0.29, 0.54) 
 Sum of skinfolds, mm (N = 438) (N = 440) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.49 (−4.42, 5.40) −0.88 (−5.42, 3.66) 4.84 (1.06, 8.63) 3.00 (−0.38, 6.39) 
  GIGT −0.93 (−7.41, 5.55) −2.17 (−8.15, 3.80) 1.98 (−5.96, 9.91) 1.96 (−5.12, 9.04) 
  GDM 2.71 (−3.20, 8.61) −0.11 (−5.63, 5.41) 0.59 (−5.12, 6.31) −3.74 (−8.93, 1.45) 
 DXA whole-body fat, % (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.29 (−3.32, 3.89) 0.28 (−3.08, 3.65) 3.39 (1.27, 5.51) 1.92 (−0.01, 3.83) 
  GIGT 0.26 (−4.17, 4.70) −0.56 (−4.71, 3.58) 1.65 (−3.80, 7.09) 1.92 (−2.94, 6.78) 
  GDM 2.39 (−1.87, 6.66) 0.14 (−3.95, 4.22) 1.37 (−2.11, 4.85) −1.10 (−4.29, 2.09) 
 DXA fat mass index, kg/m2 (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.19 (−1.60, 1.21) −0.19 (−1.48, 1.09) 1.38 (0.44, 2.31) 0.63 (−0.17, 1.44) 
  GIGT −0.07 (−1.80, 1.66) −0.43 (−2.01, 1.16) 0.26 (−2.13, 2.66) 0.37 (−1.67, 2.41) 
  GDM 1.27 (−0.39, 2.94) 0.27 (−1.29, 1.84) 0.61 (−0.92, 2.14) −0.76 (−2.09, 0.58) 
Central adiposity     
 Waist circumference, cm (N = 439) (N = 441) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 1.58 (−2.75, 5.91) 0.39 (−3.64, 4.42) 3.02 (−0.15, 6.20) 1.35 (−1.42, 4.12) 
  GIGT 0.24 (−5.48, 5.95) −0.81 (−6.11, 4.50) 1.76 (−4.89, 8.41) 1.58 (−4.21, 7.37) 
  GDM 2.71 (−2.50, 7.91) 0.43 (−4.47, 5.33) 2.38 (−2.41, 7.18) −1.77 (−6.01, 2.48) 
 DXA truncal fat mass, kg (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.22 (−1.99, 1.55) −0.22 (−1.85, 1.40) 1.70 (0.53, 2.88) 0.78 (−0.24, 1.80) 
  GIGT 0.06 (−2.11, 2.24) −0.37 (−2.38, 1.63) 0.32 (−2.70, 3.34) 0.45 (−2.13, 3.03) 
  GDM 1.20 (−0.89, 3.30) −0.07 (−2.04, 1.90) 1.01 (−0.93, 2.94) −0.72 (−2.41, 0.97) 
 DXA truncal to peripheral fat ratio (N = 301) (N = 322) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 0.00 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.00 (−0.04, 0.05) 0.05 (0.01, 0.09) 0.03 (−0.01, 0.07) 
  GIGT −0.02 (−0.08, 0.04) −0.03 (−0.08, 0.03) 0.00 (−0.10, 0.10) 0.00 (−0.09, 0.10) 
  GDM 0.02 (−0.03, 0.08) 0.00 (−0.06, 0.05) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.00 (−0.06, 0.07) 
 Skinfold ratio (SS:TR) (N = 438) (N = 440) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −0.05 (−0.13, 0.04) −0.06 (−0.14, 0.02) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.03 (−0.04, 0.09) 
  GIGT 0.01 (−0.10, 0.12) −0.00 (−0.11, 0.11) 0.02 (−0.11, 0.15) 0.02 (−0.11, 0.15) 
  GDM 0.01 (−0.09, 0.11) −0.03 (−0.13, 0.07) −0.00 (−0.10, 0.09) −0.04 (−0.13, 0.06) 
Glycemic indices     
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH −3.8 (−12.3, 4.8) −3.9 (−12.5, 4.7) 1.5 (−2.8, 5.8) 0.7 (−3.6, 5.0) 
  GIGT −4.6 (−17.4, 8.2) −4.6 (−17.5, 8.2) −5.9 (−14.1, 3.3) −5.9 (−15.0, 3.2) 
  GDM −0.2 (−11.5, 11.1) −0.7 (−12.3, 10.9) −7.2 (−14.8, 0.5) −9.6 (−17.3, −1.9) 
 Fasting insulin, μU/mL (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 14.9 (−13.5, 52.7) 12.6 (−14.8, 48.8) 9.5 (−11.6, 35.6) 7.0 (−13.4, 32.3) 
  GIGT 1.9 (−33.4, 56.1) 2.0 (−32.8, 54.8) 15.4 (−27.0, 82.4) 16.9 (−25.5, 83.3) 
  GDM 23.9 (−14.9, 80.4) 13.1 (−22.4, 65.0) −7.2 (−36.4, 35.5) −17.9 (−43.9, 20.2) 
 HOMA-IR (N = 263) (N = 240) 
  NGT Ref Ref Ref Ref 
  IH 11.5 (−16.1, 48.2) 9.2 (−17.3, 44.2) 11.7 (−10.2, 38.9) 8.4 (−12.5, 34.3) 
  GIGT 0.0 (−34.7, 53.2) 0.0 (−34.1, 51.7) 8.8 (−31.8, 73.7) 10.3 (−30.1, 74.1) 
  GDM 26.2 (−13.4, 83.9) 14.9 (−21.2, 67.6) −13.5 (−41.2, 27.2) −25.3 (−49.2, 10.0) 

Data are β (95% CI) except for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, which are expressed as % difference (95% CI). SS, subscapular; TR, triceps.

*

Model 1: adjusted for age at early adolescence visit, maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, smoking during pregnancy, marital status, household income, and paternal history of type 1 or type 2 diabetes (for glycemic indices only); model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for paternal BMI and maternal prepregnancy BMI.

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