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Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population stratified by subjects who subsequently developed DN and those who did not

CharacteristicsNo-DN (N = 3,720)DN case subjects (N = 323)P**
hs-CRP (mg/L)* 2.36 ± 3.40 3.36 ± 3.30 <0.0001 
Age (years) 53.4 ± 12.3 59.1 ± 10.4 <0.0001 
Females 2,392 (64.3) 208 (64.4) 0.5124 
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 94.61 ± 21.7 134.1 ± 60.5 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 199.2 ± 38.9 198.7 ± 45.0 0.849 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.0 ± 14.5 49.4 ± 13.8 0.004 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 127.1 ± 36.0 123.7 ± 37.5 0.132 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 100.6 ± 58.8 129.2 ± 115.7 <0.0001 
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m296.53 ± 19.40 88.27 ± 24.94 <0.0001 
ACR (mg/g)* 6.4 ± 2.6 21.3 ± 4.2 0.0246 
CVD 272 (7.4) 61 (19.2) <0.0001 
DM 473 (12.7) 232 (71.8)@ <0.0001 
Education    
 Less than high school 529 (14.3) 84 (26.1) <0.0001 
 High school/GED or some college 1,554 (41.9) 132 (41.0)  
 College/associate degree or higher 1,629 (43.9) 106 (32.9)  
Alcohol consumption 1,789 (48.3) 127 (39.7) 0.003 
Physical activity    
 Poor 1,705 (48.9) 187 (58.1) <0.0001 
 Intermediate 1,237 (33.3) 98 (30.4)  
 Ideal 776 (20.9) 37 (11.5)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124.9 ± 17.1 133.2 ± 18.6 <0.0001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.0 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.9 0.058 
WC (cm) 99.6 ± 15.9 108.6 ± 15.7 <0.0001 
Duration of DM (years) 8.1 ± 8.6 11.9 ± 10.1 <0.0001 
Smoking status    
 Nonsmokers 2,604 (70.6) 205 (63.9) 0.040 
 Former smokers 664 (18.0) 74 (23.0)  
 Current smokers 423 (11.5) 42 (13.1)  
BMI (kg/m2   
 Normal 550 (14.8) 16 (5.0) <0.0001 
 Overweight 1,238 (33.3) 86 (26.7)  
 Obese 1,929 (51.9) 220 (68.3)  
CharacteristicsNo-DN (N = 3,720)DN case subjects (N = 323)P**
hs-CRP (mg/L)* 2.36 ± 3.40 3.36 ± 3.30 <0.0001 
Age (years) 53.4 ± 12.3 59.1 ± 10.4 <0.0001 
Females 2,392 (64.3) 208 (64.4) 0.5124 
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 94.61 ± 21.7 134.1 ± 60.5 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 199.2 ± 38.9 198.7 ± 45.0 0.849 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.0 ± 14.5 49.4 ± 13.8 0.004 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 127.1 ± 36.0 123.7 ± 37.5 0.132 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 100.6 ± 58.8 129.2 ± 115.7 <0.0001 
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m296.53 ± 19.40 88.27 ± 24.94 <0.0001 
ACR (mg/g)* 6.4 ± 2.6 21.3 ± 4.2 0.0246 
CVD 272 (7.4) 61 (19.2) <0.0001 
DM 473 (12.7) 232 (71.8)@ <0.0001 
Education    
 Less than high school 529 (14.3) 84 (26.1) <0.0001 
 High school/GED or some college 1,554 (41.9) 132 (41.0)  
 College/associate degree or higher 1,629 (43.9) 106 (32.9)  
Alcohol consumption 1,789 (48.3) 127 (39.7) 0.003 
Physical activity    
 Poor 1,705 (48.9) 187 (58.1) <0.0001 
 Intermediate 1,237 (33.3) 98 (30.4)  
 Ideal 776 (20.9) 37 (11.5)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124.9 ± 17.1 133.2 ± 18.6 <0.0001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.0 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.9 0.058 
WC (cm) 99.6 ± 15.9 108.6 ± 15.7 <0.0001 
Duration of DM (years) 8.1 ± 8.6 11.9 ± 10.1 <0.0001 
Smoking status    
 Nonsmokers 2,604 (70.6) 205 (63.9) 0.040 
 Former smokers 664 (18.0) 74 (23.0)  
 Current smokers 423 (11.5) 42 (13.1)  
BMI (kg/m2   
 Normal 550 (14.8) 16 (5.0) <0.0001 
 Overweight 1,238 (33.3) 86 (26.7)  
 Obese 1,929 (51.9) 220 (68.3)  

Data are means ± SD or n (%). GED, General Educational Development degree.

*

Geometric mean ± SD was used for hs-CRP and ACR due to nonnormality of hs-CRP and ACR.

**

P values from t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. Baseline study population excludes those with DN or missing hs-CRP values at visit 1.

@A total of 232 participants with DM at the beginning of the study developed DN, and 91 (= 323–232) participants who did not have DM at the beginning developed DN during the study period.

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