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Table 2

Baseline characteristics of study population stratified by hs-CRP tertiles*

Characteristicshs-CRPP**
<1.46 mg/L (N = 1,342)1.46–4.24 mg/L (N = 1,327)>4.24 mg/L (N = 1,374)
Age (years) 52.7 ± 12.6 54.9 ± 12.4 55.2 ± 11.6 <0.0001 
Females 650 (48.4) 846 (63.8) 1,099 (80.0) <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 93.9 ± 20.8 97.4 ± 28.3 100.9 ± 33.7 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 196.5 ± 39.0 202.4 ± 38.4 198.6 ± 40.3 0.0007 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.2 ± 14.8 51.5 ± 14.2 51.9 ± 14.2 0.436 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 125.6 ± 35.3 130.2 ± 35.6 124.9 ± 37.3 0.0004 
Triglycerides 94.3 ± 61.3 104.6 ± 59.9 109 ± 70.8 <0.0001 
CVD 110 (8.3) 108 (8.3) 115 (8.5) 0.9771 
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m296.7 ± 18.8 95.4 ± 20.1 95.5 ± 21.1 0.1824 
ACR (mg/g)* 6.0 ± 2.5 7.3 ± 3.0 8.1 ± 3.0 0.1732 
DM 167 (12.4) 228 (17.2) 310 (22.6) <0.0001 
DN     
 Subsequently developed DN 74 (5.5) 103 (7.7) 149 (10.6) <0.0001 
 Never developed DN 1,268 (94.5) 1,224 (92.2) 1,228 (89.4)  
Education     
 Less than high school 162 (12.1) 221 (16.7) 230 (16.8) <0.0001 
 High school/GED or some college 536 (40.1) 556 (41.9) 594 (43.3)  
 College/associate degree or higher 638 (47.8) 549 (41.4) 548 (39.9)  
Alcohol consumption 648 (48.4) 710 (53.9) 752 (54.9) 0.0015 
PA     
 No PA 555 (41.4) 638 (48.1) 699 (51.0) <0.0001 
 Light PA 457 (34.1) 440 (33.2) 438 (31.9)  
 Moderate or vigorous PA 329 (24.5) 249 (18.8) 235 (17.1)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124 ± 16.9 127 ± 17.7 125.8 ± 17.5 <0.0001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.5 ± 10.4 79.2 ± 10.4 78.1 ± 10.5 0.0009 
WC (cm) 93.6 ± 13.4 100.3 ± 14.6 106.9 ± 17.2 <0.0001 
Duration of DM (years) 9.7 ± 10.1 9.4 ± 9.7 9.1 ± 8.4 0.8591 
Smoking status     
 Nonsmokers 931 (70) 930 (70.6) 948 (69.5) 0.6153 
 Former smokers 256 (19.2) 237 (18.0) 245 (18.0)  
 Current smokers 144 (10.8) 150 (11.4) 171 (12.5)  
BMI (kg/m2    
 Normal 337 (25.1) 157 (12.0) 70 (5.1) <0.0001 
 Overweight 598 (44.6) 434 (32.7) 292 (21.3)  
 Obese 407 (31.3) 733 (55.3) 1,009 (73.6)  
Characteristicshs-CRPP**
<1.46 mg/L (N = 1,342)1.46–4.24 mg/L (N = 1,327)>4.24 mg/L (N = 1,374)
Age (years) 52.7 ± 12.6 54.9 ± 12.4 55.2 ± 11.6 <0.0001 
Females 650 (48.4) 846 (63.8) 1,099 (80.0) <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 93.9 ± 20.8 97.4 ± 28.3 100.9 ± 33.7 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 196.5 ± 39.0 202.4 ± 38.4 198.6 ± 40.3 0.0007 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 52.2 ± 14.8 51.5 ± 14.2 51.9 ± 14.2 0.436 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 125.6 ± 35.3 130.2 ± 35.6 124.9 ± 37.3 0.0004 
Triglycerides 94.3 ± 61.3 104.6 ± 59.9 109 ± 70.8 <0.0001 
CVD 110 (8.3) 108 (8.3) 115 (8.5) 0.9771 
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m296.7 ± 18.8 95.4 ± 20.1 95.5 ± 21.1 0.1824 
ACR (mg/g)* 6.0 ± 2.5 7.3 ± 3.0 8.1 ± 3.0 0.1732 
DM 167 (12.4) 228 (17.2) 310 (22.6) <0.0001 
DN     
 Subsequently developed DN 74 (5.5) 103 (7.7) 149 (10.6) <0.0001 
 Never developed DN 1,268 (94.5) 1,224 (92.2) 1,228 (89.4)  
Education     
 Less than high school 162 (12.1) 221 (16.7) 230 (16.8) <0.0001 
 High school/GED or some college 536 (40.1) 556 (41.9) 594 (43.3)  
 College/associate degree or higher 638 (47.8) 549 (41.4) 548 (39.9)  
Alcohol consumption 648 (48.4) 710 (53.9) 752 (54.9) 0.0015 
PA     
 No PA 555 (41.4) 638 (48.1) 699 (51.0) <0.0001 
 Light PA 457 (34.1) 440 (33.2) 438 (31.9)  
 Moderate or vigorous PA 329 (24.5) 249 (18.8) 235 (17.1)  
Systolic BP (mmHg) 124 ± 16.9 127 ± 17.7 125.8 ± 17.5 <0.0001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.5 ± 10.4 79.2 ± 10.4 78.1 ± 10.5 0.0009 
WC (cm) 93.6 ± 13.4 100.3 ± 14.6 106.9 ± 17.2 <0.0001 
Duration of DM (years) 9.7 ± 10.1 9.4 ± 9.7 9.1 ± 8.4 0.8591 
Smoking status     
 Nonsmokers 931 (70) 930 (70.6) 948 (69.5) 0.6153 
 Former smokers 256 (19.2) 237 (18.0) 245 (18.0)  
 Current smokers 144 (10.8) 150 (11.4) 171 (12.5)  
BMI (kg/m2    
 Normal 337 (25.1) 157 (12.0) 70 (5.1) <0.0001 
 Overweight 598 (44.6) 434 (32.7) 292 (21.3)  
 Obese 407 (31.3) 733 (55.3) 1,009 (73.6)  

Data are mean ± SD or N (%). GED, General Educational Development degree; PA, physical activity.

*

Geometric mean ± SD was used for ACR due to nonnormality of ACR.

**

P values from t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. Baseline study population excludes those with DN or missing hs-CRP values at exam 1.

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