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Table 2

HR (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes among women with a history of GDM, according to lifetime duration of total lactation in NHS II (N = 4,372)

0 months>0 to 6 months>6 to 12 months>12 to 24 months>24 monthsP for trend
Cases/person-years 178/14,553 155/12,769 151/16,007 205/22,253 184/21,828  
Model 1 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.82 (0.64–1.03) 0.78 (0.62–0.97) 0.67 (0.54–0.84) <0.0001 
Model 2 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 0.85 (0.67–1.08) 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 0.64 (0.51–0.82) <0.0001 
Model 3 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.85 (0.67–1.06) 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.003 
0 months>0 to 6 months>6 to 12 months>12 to 24 months>24 monthsP for trend
Cases/person-years 178/14,553 155/12,769 151/16,007 205/22,253 184/21,828  
Model 1 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.82 (0.64–1.03) 0.78 (0.62–0.97) 0.67 (0.54–0.84) <0.0001 
Model 2 1.04 (0.82–1.32) 0.85 (0.67–1.08) 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 0.64 (0.51–0.82) <0.0001 
Model 3 1.05 (0.83–1.34) 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.85 (0.67–1.06) 0.73 (0.57–0.93) 0.003 

Model 1 adjusted for age. Model 2 additionally adjusted for ethnicity (white/nonwhite), family history of diabetes (yes/no), updated parity, and age at first birth (<25, 25–29, 30–34, ≥35 years). Model 3 additionally adjusted for baseline ever smoking (yes/no), baseline diet quality (tertiles), baseline physical activity (tertiles), and prepregnancy BMI (≤23, >23–25, >25–27, >27–30, >30 kg/m2).

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