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Table 3

HR (95% CI) for type 2 diabetes among women with a history of GDM, according to lifetime duration of exclusive lactation in NHS II (N = 4,006)

0 months>0 to 6 months>6 to 12 months>12 monthsP for trend
Cases/person-years 363/30,531 200/19,235 155/18,318 109/14,013  
Model 1 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 0.73 (0.59–0.89) 0.66 (0.53–0.83) <0.0001 
Model 2 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 0.73 (0.60–0.90) 0.64 (0.50–0.82) <0.0001 
Model 3 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 0.79 (0.64–0.98) 0.70 (0.54–0.90) 0.002 
0 months>0 to 6 months>6 to 12 months>12 monthsP for trend
Cases/person-years 363/30,531 200/19,235 155/18,318 109/14,013  
Model 1 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 0.73 (0.59–0.89) 0.66 (0.53–0.83) <0.0001 
Model 2 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 0.73 (0.60–0.90) 0.64 (0.50–0.82) <0.0001 
Model 3 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 0.79 (0.64–0.98) 0.70 (0.54–0.90) 0.002 

Model 1 adjusted for age. Model 2 additionally adjusted for ethnicity (white/nonwhite), family history of diabetes (yes/no), updated parity, and age at first birth (<25, 25–29, 30–34, ≥35 years). Model 3 additionally adjusted for ever smoking (yes/no), diet quality (tertiles), physical activity (tertiles), and prepregnancy BMI (≤23, >23–25, >25–27, >27–30, >30 kg/m2).

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