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Table 4

Least-squares mean (95% CI) biomarker concentrations of glucose metabolic biomarkers according to lifetime duration of lactation among women free of diabetes (HbA1c <6.5% [48 mmol/mol]) with a history of GDM (n = 543)

0 months1–12 months12–24 months>24 monthsP for trend
HbA1c, %; mmol/mol      
 Model 1 5.68 (5.59–5.77); 39 (38–40) 5.64 (5.59–5.70); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.58 (5.53–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.03 
 Model 2 5.69 (5.59–5.78); 39 (38–40) 5.65 (5.59–5.70); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.57 (5.52–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.02 
 Model 3 5.66 (5.56–5.75); 38 (37–39) 5.65 (5.60–5.71); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.58 (5.53–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.04 
Insulin, pmol/L      
 Model 1 71.6 (60.5–84.7) 61.3 (55.6–67.6) 54.7 (49.5–60.5) 51.3 (46.8–56.2) 0.0004 
 Model 2 69.7 (58.8–82.7) 60.6 (54.8–67.0) 54.7 (49.5–60.5) 52.2 (47.3–57.5) 0.005 
 Model 3 64.7 (54.6–76.8) 61.0 (55.2–67.3) 54.7 (49.5–60.4) 53.1 (48.2–58.5) 0.02 
C-peptide, ng/mL      
 Model 1 4.07 (3.67–4.52) 3.74 (3.52–3.97) 3.48 (3.27–3.70) 3.35 (3.17–3.55) 0.0006 
 Model 2 4.01 (3.61–4.46) 3.71 (3.49–3.95) 3.48 (3.27–3.70) 3.39 (3.19–3.60) 0.007 
 Model 3 3.88 (3.49–4.32) 3.73 (3.50–3.96) 3.47 (3.26–3.69) 3.42 (3.22–3.63) 0.02 
0 months1–12 months12–24 months>24 monthsP for trend
HbA1c, %; mmol/mol      
 Model 1 5.68 (5.59–5.77); 39 (38–40) 5.64 (5.59–5.70); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.58 (5.53–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.03 
 Model 2 5.69 (5.59–5.78); 39 (38–40) 5.65 (5.59–5.70); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.57 (5.52–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.02 
 Model 3 5.66 (5.56–5.75); 38 (37–39) 5.65 (5.60–5.71); 38 (38–39) 5.66 (5.61–5.72); 38 (38–39) 5.58 (5.53–5.63); 37 (37–38) 0.04 
Insulin, pmol/L      
 Model 1 71.6 (60.5–84.7) 61.3 (55.6–67.6) 54.7 (49.5–60.5) 51.3 (46.8–56.2) 0.0004 
 Model 2 69.7 (58.8–82.7) 60.6 (54.8–67.0) 54.7 (49.5–60.5) 52.2 (47.3–57.5) 0.005 
 Model 3 64.7 (54.6–76.8) 61.0 (55.2–67.3) 54.7 (49.5–60.4) 53.1 (48.2–58.5) 0.02 
C-peptide, ng/mL      
 Model 1 4.07 (3.67–4.52) 3.74 (3.52–3.97) 3.48 (3.27–3.70) 3.35 (3.17–3.55) 0.0006 
 Model 2 4.01 (3.61–4.46) 3.71 (3.49–3.95) 3.48 (3.27–3.70) 3.39 (3.19–3.60) 0.007 
 Model 3 3.88 (3.49–4.32) 3.73 (3.50–3.96) 3.47 (3.26–3.69) 3.42 (3.22–3.63) 0.02 

Model 1 adjusted for age at follow-up blood draw. Model 2 additionally adjusted for ethnicity (white/nonwhite), family history of diabetes (yes/no), lifetime parity, and age at first birth (<25, 25–29, 30–34, ≥35 years). Model 3 additionally adjusted for ever smoking (yes/no), diet quality (high/low), baseline physical activity (high/low), and prepregnancy BMI (≤23, >23–25, >25–27, >27–30, >30 kg/m2).

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