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Table 1

The risk for having fGADA, tGADA, and RSRGADA in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes analyzed with logistic regression adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis, multiple autoantibodies, and the HLA-DQ genotypes

Patients with type 1 diabetesfGADA (n = 654)
tGADA (n = 654)
RSRGADA (n = 619)
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
Females 1.7 1.2–2.4 0.005 1.8 1.2–2.6 0.003 1.8 1.2–2.5 0.002 
Age at diagnosis ≥10 years 2.0 1.4–2.9 <0.001 1.8 1.3–2.7 0.002 2.0 1.4–2.8 <0.001 
Positivity for ≥2 autoantibodies* 4.7 2.9–7.4 <0.001 4.5 2.8–7.2 <0.001 5.3 3.2–8.6 <0.001 
HLA-DQ genotypes          
 DQX/X (reference) 1.0 — — 1.0 — — 1.0 — — 
 DQ2/2 4.5 1.7–11.9 0.002 7.5 2.4–22.8 <0.001 3.4 1.3–8.9 0.01 
 DQ2/8 1.9 1.1–3.3 0.03 2.1 1.2–3.7 0.01 1.7 1.0–3.1 0.6 
 DQ8/8 1.9 0.9–3.8 0.09 3.3 1.5–7.4 0.003 1.7 0.8–3.4 0.2 
 DQ2/X 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.3 1.4 0.7–2.9 0.3 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.4 
 DQ8/X 1.3 0.7–2.4 0.3 1.5 0.8–2.7 0.2 1.1 0.6–2.0 0.7 
Patients with type 1 diabetesfGADA (n = 654)
tGADA (n = 654)
RSRGADA (n = 619)
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
Females 1.7 1.2–2.4 0.005 1.8 1.2–2.6 0.003 1.8 1.2–2.5 0.002 
Age at diagnosis ≥10 years 2.0 1.4–2.9 <0.001 1.8 1.3–2.7 0.002 2.0 1.4–2.8 <0.001 
Positivity for ≥2 autoantibodies* 4.7 2.9–7.4 <0.001 4.5 2.8–7.2 <0.001 5.3 3.2–8.6 <0.001 
HLA-DQ genotypes          
 DQX/X (reference) 1.0 — — 1.0 — — 1.0 — — 
 DQ2/2 4.5 1.7–11.9 0.002 7.5 2.4–22.8 <0.001 3.4 1.3–8.9 0.01 
 DQ2/8 1.9 1.1–3.3 0.03 2.1 1.2–3.7 0.01 1.7 1.0–3.1 0.6 
 DQ8/8 1.9 0.9–3.8 0.09 3.3 1.5–7.4 0.003 1.7 0.8–3.4 0.2 
 DQ2/X 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.3 1.4 0.7–2.9 0.3 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.4 
 DQ8/X 1.3 0.7–2.4 0.3 1.5 0.8–2.7 0.2 1.1 0.6–2.0 0.7 

*Autoantibodies included GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ZnT8RA, ZnT8WA, ZnT8QA, NPYA, and ICA;

†DQ2/8, DQ A1*05:01-B1*02:01/A1*03:01-B1*03:02; DQ8/X, DQ A1*03:01-B1*03:02/X (X is any haplotype except for DQ2 or DQ8); DQ8/8, DQ A1*03:01-B1*03:02/ A1*03:01-B1*03:02; DQ2/X, DQ A1*05:01-B1*02:01/X (X is any haplotype except for DQ2 or DQ8); DQ2/2, DQ A1*05:01-B1*02:01/A1*05:01-B1*02:01.

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