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Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of T1D case subjects and control subjects in the study population

Patient characteristicsControl (n = 74)T1D (n = 176)P value*
Age (years) 15.4 (2.2) 15.2 (2.2) 0.64 
Duration of diabetes (years) — 8.6 (2.9)  
Sex, female, n (%) 42 (57) 99 (56) 0.92 
Race, %   0.03 
 Non-Hispanic white 68 83  
 African American 11  
 Hispanic 11  
 Other 10  
Tanner stage, %¥   0.77 
 1  
 2 13 10  
 3 16 12  
 4 24 25  
 5 42 49  
BMI (kg/m221.8 (4.2) 22.4 (3.4) 0.03 
BMI z score 0.27 (1.0) 0.55 (0.77) 0.04 
HbA1c (%, mmol/mol) 5.3 (0.3), 34 (2.9) 9.0 (1.6), 75 (17.5) <0.001 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 109 (8) 113 (9) <0.001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 64 (6) 69 (6) <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 148 (28) 159 (35) 0.47 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 82 (23) 90 (28) 0.39 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 49 (9) 52 (11) 0.29 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 83 (42) 87 (50) 0.33 
ApoB (mg/dL) 69 (19) 77 (23) 0.003 
PCSK9 (ng/mL) 203 (77) 279 (104) 0.0001 
Patient characteristicsControl (n = 74)T1D (n = 176)P value*
Age (years) 15.4 (2.2) 15.2 (2.2) 0.64 
Duration of diabetes (years) — 8.6 (2.9)  
Sex, female, n (%) 42 (57) 99 (56) 0.92 
Race, %   0.03 
 Non-Hispanic white 68 83  
 African American 11  
 Hispanic 11  
 Other 10  
Tanner stage, %¥   0.77 
 1  
 2 13 10  
 3 16 12  
 4 24 25  
 5 42 49  
BMI (kg/m221.8 (4.2) 22.4 (3.4) 0.03 
BMI z score 0.27 (1.0) 0.55 (0.77) 0.04 
HbA1c (%, mmol/mol) 5.3 (0.3), 34 (2.9) 9.0 (1.6), 75 (17.5) <0.001 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 109 (8) 113 (9) <0.001 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 64 (6) 69 (6) <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 148 (28) 159 (35) 0.47 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 82 (23) 90 (28) 0.39 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 49 (9) 52 (11) 0.29 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 83 (42) 87 (50) 0.33 
ApoB (mg/dL) 69 (19) 77 (23) 0.003 
PCSK9 (ng/mL) 203 (77) 279 (104) 0.0001 

Values are mean (SD), unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure.

*

Comparisons between groups determined using t tests if variables were normally distributed or normality was achieved with log transformation. Boldface type indicates statistical significance where P < 0.05.

¥

Tanner stage refers to pubic hair development by provider report.

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