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Table 2.1

Staging of type 1 diabetes (4,5)

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Characteristics • Autoimmunity • Autoimmunity • New-onset hyperglycemia 
 • Normoglycemia • Dysglycemia • Symptomatic 
 • Presymptomatic • Presymptomatic  
Diagnostic criteria • Multiple autoantibodies • Multiple autoantibodies • Clinical symptoms 
 • No IGT or IFG • Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT • Diabetes by standard criteria 
  • FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)  
  • 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)  
  • A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C  
Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Characteristics • Autoimmunity • Autoimmunity • New-onset hyperglycemia 
 • Normoglycemia • Dysglycemia • Symptomatic 
 • Presymptomatic • Presymptomatic  
Diagnostic criteria • Multiple autoantibodies • Multiple autoantibodies • Clinical symptoms 
 • No IGT or IFG • Dysglycemia: IFG and/or IGT • Diabetes by standard criteria 
  • FPG 100–125 mg/dL (5.6–6.9 mmol/L)  
  • 2-h PG 140–199 mg/dL (7.8–11.0 mmol/L)  
  • A1C 5.7–6.4% (39–47 mmol/mol) or ≥10% increase in A1C  
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