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Table 1

Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants with long-term type 1 diabetes in China

All (n = 95)Plasma antibody negative (n = 56)*Plasma antibody positive (n = 13)*
Age, years 55.2 (10.4) 55.3 (10.9) 57.8 (9.7) 
Age at diagnosis, years 17.1 (8.6) 16.9 (8.9) 18.9 (8.0) 
Diabetes duration, years 37.3 (6.8) 37.4 (6.9) 37.9 (7.9) 
Highest level of education, n (%)*    
 < University 56 (57.1) 24 (51.1) 8 (64.0) 
 Junior university 12 (12.2) 6 (12.8) 3 (12.0) 
 ≥ University 16 (16.3) 7 (14.9) 2 (18.0) 
Occupation, n (%)*    
 Nongovernment worker 13 (13.3) 7 (14.9) 2 (12.0) 
 Government worker 10 (10.2) 3 (6.4) 2 (14.0) 
 Student 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 
 Farmer 4 (4.1) 3 (6.4) 0 (0.0) 
 Retired/unemployed/never worked 56 (84.7) 24 (51.1) 8 (64.0) 
Marital status, n (%)*    
 Married/cohabitating 62 (63.3) 29 (61.7) 6 (66.0) 
 Single/never married/widowed 22 (21.4) 8 (17.0) 2 (28.0) 
Medical insurance, n (%)*    
 Urban employee 5 (5.1) 3 (6.4) 2 (4.0) 
 Urban resident 59 (60.2) 24 (51.1) 35 (70.0) 
 New cooperative 17 (17.3) 9 (19.1) 8 (16.0) 
 Other 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (4.0) 
 None 1 (1.0) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 
Residency status, n (%)*    
 Urban 67 (68.4) 36 (61.7) 9 (76.0) 
 Rural 17 (17.3) 11 (17.0) 4 (18.0) 
Daily insulin dosage, units* 41.3 (14.7) 40.3 (14.9) 42.2 (14.6) 
Statin usage, n (%) 12 (12.6) 7 (14.9) 5 (10.9) 
BMI, kg/m2* 22.48 (2.75) 21.86 (2.35) 24.49 (3.50) 
SBP, mmHg* 126.3 (18.7) 124.9 (25.7) 126.3 (18.7) 
DBP, mmHg* 72.6 (9.0) 72.1 (13.2) 72.6 (9.0) 
HbA1c, %* 6.87 (1.15) 6.94 (1.14) 6.87 (1.15) 
Total cholesterol, mg/dL* 5.16 (1.19) 4.84 (1.35) 5.16 (1.19) 
HDL, mg/dL* 1.56 (0.33) 1.63 (0.49) 1.56 (0.33) 
LDL, mg/dL* 2.87 (1.02) 2.65 (1.12) 2.87 (1.02) 
Triglyceride, mg/dL* 1.08 (0.50) 1.11 (0.59) 1.08 (0.50) 
Creatinine, μmol/L* 87.4 (3.2) 89.6 (4.3) 81.1 (5.6) 
C-peptide ≥0.075 nmol/L, n (%)* 14 (14.7) 11 (19.6) 3 (21.4) 
Urinary Alb/Cr, mg/g, median (minimum, maximum)* 9.88 (0.35, 5,557.8) 8.29 (0.06, 8,759.4) 9.88 (0.35, 5,557.8) 
All (n = 95)Plasma antibody negative (n = 56)*Plasma antibody positive (n = 13)*
Age, years 55.2 (10.4) 55.3 (10.9) 57.8 (9.7) 
Age at diagnosis, years 17.1 (8.6) 16.9 (8.9) 18.9 (8.0) 
Diabetes duration, years 37.3 (6.8) 37.4 (6.9) 37.9 (7.9) 
Highest level of education, n (%)*    
 < University 56 (57.1) 24 (51.1) 8 (64.0) 
 Junior university 12 (12.2) 6 (12.8) 3 (12.0) 
 ≥ University 16 (16.3) 7 (14.9) 2 (18.0) 
Occupation, n (%)*    
 Nongovernment worker 13 (13.3) 7 (14.9) 2 (12.0) 
 Government worker 10 (10.2) 3 (6.4) 2 (14.0) 
 Student 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 
 Farmer 4 (4.1) 3 (6.4) 0 (0.0) 
 Retired/unemployed/never worked 56 (84.7) 24 (51.1) 8 (64.0) 
Marital status, n (%)*    
 Married/cohabitating 62 (63.3) 29 (61.7) 6 (66.0) 
 Single/never married/widowed 22 (21.4) 8 (17.0) 2 (28.0) 
Medical insurance, n (%)*    
 Urban employee 5 (5.1) 3 (6.4) 2 (4.0) 
 Urban resident 59 (60.2) 24 (51.1) 35 (70.0) 
 New cooperative 17 (17.3) 9 (19.1) 8 (16.0) 
 Other 2 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (4.0) 
 None 1 (1.0) 1 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 
Residency status, n (%)*    
 Urban 67 (68.4) 36 (61.7) 9 (76.0) 
 Rural 17 (17.3) 11 (17.0) 4 (18.0) 
Daily insulin dosage, units* 41.3 (14.7) 40.3 (14.9) 42.2 (14.6) 
Statin usage, n (%) 12 (12.6) 7 (14.9) 5 (10.9) 
BMI, kg/m2* 22.48 (2.75) 21.86 (2.35) 24.49 (3.50) 
SBP, mmHg* 126.3 (18.7) 124.9 (25.7) 126.3 (18.7) 
DBP, mmHg* 72.6 (9.0) 72.1 (13.2) 72.6 (9.0) 
HbA1c, %* 6.87 (1.15) 6.94 (1.14) 6.87 (1.15) 
Total cholesterol, mg/dL* 5.16 (1.19) 4.84 (1.35) 5.16 (1.19) 
HDL, mg/dL* 1.56 (0.33) 1.63 (0.49) 1.56 (0.33) 
LDL, mg/dL* 2.87 (1.02) 2.65 (1.12) 2.87 (1.02) 
Triglyceride, mg/dL* 1.08 (0.50) 1.11 (0.59) 1.08 (0.50) 
Creatinine, μmol/L* 87.4 (3.2) 89.6 (4.3) 81.1 (5.6) 
C-peptide ≥0.075 nmol/L, n (%)* 14 (14.7) 11 (19.6) 3 (21.4) 
Urinary Alb/Cr, mg/g, median (minimum, maximum)* 9.88 (0.35, 5,557.8) 8.29 (0.06, 8,759.4) 9.88 (0.35, 5,557.8) 

Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. Alb/Cr, albumin/creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

*

Eleven were missing for highest education level; 12 were missing for occupation; 11 were missing for marital status; 11 were missing for medical insurance; 11 were missing for residency status; 2 were missing for daily insulin dosage; 14 were missing for weight, height, and BMI; 17 were missing for SBP and DBP; 1 was missing for HbA1c; 1 was missing for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride; 5 were missing for creatinine; 4 were missing for C-peptide; 11 were missing for urinary Alb/Cr; 26 were missing antibody status.

P < 0.05 from χ2 test and ANOVA test comparing antibody-positive and -negative groups.

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