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Table 1—

Baseline and follow-up characteristics of the hypertensive cohort

CCBACE inhibitorsβ-Blockers
n 19,598 35,993 20,585 
Baseline    
    Age (years) 73.2 ± 5.9 73.3 ± 6.1 72.8 ± 5.7 
    Sex, female 62% 62% 64% 
    Socioeconomic status (income quintile)* 2.9 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 
    Drug comorbidity index 4.54 ± 4.74 4.36 ± 4.40 4.34 ± 4.47 
    Rural residence 14% 15% 16% 
    α-Blockers 4% 3% 3% 
    Atypical antipsychotics 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 
    Corticosteroids 7% 6% 4% 
    Fibrates 1% 1% 1% 
    Lithium 0.3% 0.2% 0.6% 
    Niacin 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 
    Phenytoin 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 
    Resins 0.6% 0.5% 0.6% 
    Statins 13% 13% 12% 
    Thiazides 24% 29% 28% 
During follow-up    
    Mean length of follow-up (months) 11.6 ± 11.7 11.2 ± 11.4 9.8 ± 10 
    Outpatient encounter index 13.7 ± 18.9 13.7 ± 19.3 13.1 ± 15.7 
    Hospitalizations index§ 0.63 ± 1.9 0.56 ± 1.7 0.58 ± 2.0 
    Glucose testing index 1.1 ± 2.9 1.1 ± 2.9 1.0 ± 2.3 
CCBACE inhibitorsβ-Blockers
n 19,598 35,993 20,585 
Baseline    
    Age (years) 73.2 ± 5.9 73.3 ± 6.1 72.8 ± 5.7 
    Sex, female 62% 62% 64% 
    Socioeconomic status (income quintile)* 2.9 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 
    Drug comorbidity index 4.54 ± 4.74 4.36 ± 4.40 4.34 ± 4.47 
    Rural residence 14% 15% 16% 
    α-Blockers 4% 3% 3% 
    Atypical antipsychotics 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 
    Corticosteroids 7% 6% 4% 
    Fibrates 1% 1% 1% 
    Lithium 0.3% 0.2% 0.6% 
    Niacin 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 
    Phenytoin 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 
    Resins 0.6% 0.5% 0.6% 
    Statins 13% 13% 12% 
    Thiazides 24% 29% 28% 
During follow-up    
    Mean length of follow-up (months) 11.6 ± 11.7 11.2 ± 11.4 9.8 ± 10 
    Outpatient encounter index 13.7 ± 18.9 13.7 ± 19.3 13.1 ± 15.7 
    Hospitalizations index§ 0.63 ± 1.9 0.56 ± 1.7 0.58 ± 2.0 
    Glucose testing index 1.1 ± 2.9 1.1 ± 2.9 1.0 ± 2.3 

Data are means ±SD or percentage.

*

Income quintile: 1 (poorest) to 5 (richest).

Drug comorbidity index is the number of concomitant medications (index of comorbidity).

Outpatient encounter index = (number of outpatient primary care visits/length of follow-up) × 365.

§

Hospital index = (number of hospitalizations/length of follow-up) × 365.

Glucose testing index = (frequency of glucose measurements/length of follow-up) × 365. This variable was available in 43% of the entire cohort and 45, 44, and 40% of the CCB, ACE inhibitor, and β-blocker groups, respectively.

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