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Table 2—

Results of tests of memory during euglycemia and hyperglycemia in 20 adults with type 2 diabetes

SubtestEuglycemiaHyperglycemiaPFEta2AgeSexGIRHbA1cTAEAHT
Immediate memory             
    Immediate Logical Memory 27.2 ± 4.3 26.1 ± 4.1 0.16 2.13 0.11 0.93 0.16 0.67 0.41 0.52 0.47 0.88 
    Immediate AVLT 35.0 ± 5.7 32.4 ± 4.9 0.09 3.33 0.16 0.78 0.12 0.43 0.56 0.46 0.46 0.38 
    Benton Visual Retention Test 6.2 ± 1.2 5.9 ± 0.9 0.30 1.16 0.06 0.82 0.88 0.31 0.32 0.21 0.63 0.18 
    Visual Reproduction 76.9 ± 7.6 77.9 ± 7.5 0.51 0.44 0.02 0.64 0.95 0.79 0.39 0.30 0.12 0.66 
Working memory             
    Digit Span Forwards 9.6 ± 1.3 9.2 ± 1.6 0.33 0.99 0.05 0.53 0.18 0.53 0.41 0.48 0.54 0.61 
    Digit Span Backwards 8.6 ± 1.5 7.9 ± 1.3 0.01 5.01 0.30 0.13 0.09 0.49 0.36 0.61 0.55 0.89 
    Letter/Number Sequencing 10.4 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 1.6 0.02 6.94 0.25 0.24 0.10 0.60 0.38 0.17 0.31 0.87 
Delayed memory             
    Delayed Logical Memory 13.2 ± 2.1 12.3 ± 2.2 0.09 3.16 0.15 0.54 0.18 0.78 0.51 0.85 0.68 0.72 
    Delayed AVLT 8.2 ± 2.2 7.8 ± 1.9 0.26 6.23 0.07 0.25 0.46 0.94 0.26 0.62 0.40 0.06 
    Delayed Visual Reproduction 14.1 ± 9.2 10.8 ± 8.2 0.08 3.58 0.17 0.41 0.31 0.36 0.76 0.59 0.31 0.70 
SubtestEuglycemiaHyperglycemiaPFEta2AgeSexGIRHbA1cTAEAHT
Immediate memory             
    Immediate Logical Memory 27.2 ± 4.3 26.1 ± 4.1 0.16 2.13 0.11 0.93 0.16 0.67 0.41 0.52 0.47 0.88 
    Immediate AVLT 35.0 ± 5.7 32.4 ± 4.9 0.09 3.33 0.16 0.78 0.12 0.43 0.56 0.46 0.46 0.38 
    Benton Visual Retention Test 6.2 ± 1.2 5.9 ± 0.9 0.30 1.16 0.06 0.82 0.88 0.31 0.32 0.21 0.63 0.18 
    Visual Reproduction 76.9 ± 7.6 77.9 ± 7.5 0.51 0.44 0.02 0.64 0.95 0.79 0.39 0.30 0.12 0.66 
Working memory             
    Digit Span Forwards 9.6 ± 1.3 9.2 ± 1.6 0.33 0.99 0.05 0.53 0.18 0.53 0.41 0.48 0.54 0.61 
    Digit Span Backwards 8.6 ± 1.5 7.9 ± 1.3 0.01 5.01 0.30 0.13 0.09 0.49 0.36 0.61 0.55 0.89 
    Letter/Number Sequencing 10.4 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 1.6 0.02 6.94 0.25 0.24 0.10 0.60 0.38 0.17 0.31 0.87 
Delayed memory             
    Delayed Logical Memory 13.2 ± 2.1 12.3 ± 2.2 0.09 3.16 0.15 0.54 0.18 0.78 0.51 0.85 0.68 0.72 
    Delayed AVLT 8.2 ± 2.2 7.8 ± 1.9 0.26 6.23 0.07 0.25 0.46 0.94 0.26 0.62 0.40 0.06 
    Delayed Visual Reproduction 14.1 ± 9.2 10.8 ± 8.2 0.08 3.58 0.17 0.41 0.31 0.36 0.76 0.59 0.31 0.70 

Data are means ± SD. The effects of age, sex, glucose infusion rate (GIR), HbA1c, and mood as covariates are also shown (all P values). AVLT, Auditory Verbal Learning Test; EA, energetic arousal; HT, hedonic tone; TA, tense arousal.

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