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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the 97,245 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study in 1988

COPDNo COPD
AsthmaNo asthma*
n 1,342 2,879 93,024 
Age (years) 58 ± 7 52 ± 7 54 ± 7 
Race (%)    
    White 93 92 87 
    Non-white 
    Missing 
BMI (kg/m224.1 (21.6–27.3) 25.5 (22.8–29.2) 24.4 (22.1–27.5) 
Family history of diabetes (%) 24 20 20 
Hypertension (%) 19 20 16 
Hormone replacement therapy (%)    
    Premenopausal 24 29 29 
    Current user of estrogen only 12 
    Current user of estrogen and progesterone 
    Missing 20 17 20 
Activity level (METs/week) 12 ± 18 14 ± 17 16 ± 22 
Smoking status (%)    
    Never smoker 16 48 44 
    Past smoker 31 41 36 
    Current light smoker (<25 cigarettes/day) 28 14 
    Current heavy smoker (≥25 cigarettes/day) 25 
    Pack-years 50 (37–67) 20 (8–35) 25 (12–43) 
Daily alcohol intake (gm/day) 9 ± 14 6 ± 10 7 ± 10 
Cereal fiber intake (gm/day) 4 ± 3 5 ± 3 5 ± 3 
Trans fat intake (gm/day) 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 
Glycemic load index 10,923 ± 4,183 11,129 ± 4,118 11,044 ± 4,094 
Polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 
COPDNo COPD
AsthmaNo asthma*
n 1,342 2,879 93,024 
Age (years) 58 ± 7 52 ± 7 54 ± 7 
Race (%)    
    White 93 92 87 
    Non-white 
    Missing 
BMI (kg/m224.1 (21.6–27.3) 25.5 (22.8–29.2) 24.4 (22.1–27.5) 
Family history of diabetes (%) 24 20 20 
Hypertension (%) 19 20 16 
Hormone replacement therapy (%)    
    Premenopausal 24 29 29 
    Current user of estrogen only 12 
    Current user of estrogen and progesterone 
    Missing 20 17 20 
Activity level (METs/week) 12 ± 18 14 ± 17 16 ± 22 
Smoking status (%)    
    Never smoker 16 48 44 
    Past smoker 31 41 36 
    Current light smoker (<25 cigarettes/day) 28 14 
    Current heavy smoker (≥25 cigarettes/day) 25 
    Pack-years 50 (37–67) 20 (8–35) 25 (12–43) 
Daily alcohol intake (gm/day) 9 ± 14 6 ± 10 7 ± 10 
Cereal fiber intake (gm/day) 4 ± 3 5 ± 3 5 ± 3 
Trans fat intake (gm/day) 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 3 ± 1 
Glycemic load index 10,923 ± 4,183 11,129 ± 4,118 11,044 ± 4,094 
Polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 

Data are means ±SD or median (interquartile range), unless noted otherwise.

*

Includes 1,371 participants with a component of COPD not reaching diagnostic criteria and 21 subjects with asthma but without date of onset. MET, metabolic equivalent.

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