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Table 3—

Risk of type 2 diabetes associated with COPD or asthma stratified by smoking status

COPD
Asthma
n (%)RR (95% CI)n (%)RR (95% CI)
All patients 1,342 (100) 1.8 (1.1–2.8) 2,879 (100) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 
Never smokers 215 (16) 1.4 (0.46–4.5) 1,382 (48) 0.98 (0.69–1.4) 
Past smokers 416 (31) 2.2 (1.1–4.4) 1,180 (41) 1.05 (0.73–1.5) 
Current smokers 711 (53) 1.7 (0.84–3.4) 317 (11) 0.79 (0.32–1.9) 
All smokers 1,127 (84) 2.0 (1.2–3.2) 1,497 (52) 1.01 (0.72–1.4) 
COPD
Asthma
n (%)RR (95% CI)n (%)RR (95% CI)
All patients 1,342 (100) 1.8 (1.1–2.8) 2,879 (100) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 
Never smokers 215 (16) 1.4 (0.46–4.5) 1,382 (48) 0.98 (0.69–1.4) 
Past smokers 416 (31) 2.2 (1.1–4.4) 1,180 (41) 1.05 (0.73–1.5) 
Current smokers 711 (53) 1.7 (0.84–3.4) 317 (11) 0.79 (0.32–1.9) 
All smokers 1,127 (84) 2.0 (1.2–3.2) 1,497 (52) 1.01 (0.72–1.4) 
*

Adjusted for age, BMI (in four categories), sedentary (weekly frequency of moderate-to-vigorous exercise <0.5 h), smoking status (never smoked, former smoker, current smoker [<25 cigarettes/day], or current smoker [≥25 cigarettes/day]), daily alcohol intake, and a dietary score variable.

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