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Table 1—

Depression and demographic characteristics by depression grouping

VariablesTotal sampleNo depressionMinor depressionMajor depressionOverall test statistics (χ2, df = 2)Minor vs. none (χ2, df = 1)Major vs. none (χ2, df = 1)
n (%) 4,193* 3,335 (79.5) 357 (8.5) 501 (12)    
Women 2,042 (48.7) 1,567 (47.0) 182 (51.0) 293 (58.5) 23.86 1.91 22.59 
High school or less 1,047 (25.3) 801 (24.3) 112 (31.7) 134 (27.2) 10.33 8.94 1.74 
Unmarried and not living as married 1,403 (33.7) 1,068 (32.3) 132 (37.2) 203 (41.0) 14.89 3.30 14.41 
Employment: full or part time 1,677 (41.2) 1,339 (41.2) 126 (36.8) 212 (44.6) 4.99 2.22 1.91 
Caucasian 3,196 (77.7) 2,561 (78.2) 255 (72.2) 380 (77.9)    
African American 338 (8.2) 256 (7.8) 34 (9.6) 48 (9.8) 21.66 10.14§ 13.14 
Asian 369 (9.0) 306 (9.3) 36 (10.2) 27 (5.3) df = 6 df = 3  
Other 212 (5.2) 151 (4.6) 28 (7.9) 33 (6.8)    
     F(2, 4,190) t(3,690) t(3,834) 
Age in years 64.9 ± 12.6 64.9 ± 12.3 64.7 ± 13.3 59.7 ± 13.0 37.54 0.22 8.69 
Rx Risk score        
 First quartile 1,024 ± 24.4 810 ± 24.3 89 ± 24.9 125 ± 25.0    
 Second quartile 1,077 ± 25.7 895 ± 26.8 66 ± 18.5 116 ± 23.1 25.02 14.10 12.99 
 Third quartile 1,040 ± 24.8 838 ± 25.2 95 ± 26.6 107 ± 21.4 df = 6 df = 3 df = 4 
 Fourth quartile 1,052 ± 25.1 792 ± 23.7 107 ± 30.0 153 ± 30.5    
Diabetes complications        
 0 1,312 ± 31.3 1,094 ± 32.8 91 ± 25.5 127 ± 25.3    
 1 1,333 ± 31.8 1,078 ± 32.3 106 ± 29.7 149 ± 29.7 51.51 25.96 33.58 
 2 802 ± 19.1 619 ± 18.6 80 ± 22.4 103 ± 20.6 df = 8 df = 4 df = 2 
 3 423 ± 10.1 329 ± 9.9 35 ± 9.8 59 ± 11.8    
 4+ 323 ± 7.7 215 ± 6.4 45 ± 12.6 63 ± 12.6    
HbA1c level groups     27.06 1.79 25.94 
 <8.00% 2,667 ± 63.6 2,179 ± 65.3 220 ± 61.6 268 ± 53.5    
 ≥8.00% 1,526 ± 36.4 1,156 ± 34.7 137 ± 38.4 233 ± 46.5    
Duration of diabetes in years        
 >5 1,541 ± 36.8 1,269 ± 38.1 107 ± 30.1 165 ± 33.0 16.84 9.00 9.21 
 >5–9.9 1,097 ± 26.2 872 ± 26.2 103 ± 28.9 122 ± 24.4 df = 4 df = 2 df = 2 
 >10.0 1,548 ± 37.0 1,189 ± 35.7 146 ± 41.0 213 ± 42.6    
BMI     72.02 7.95 67.38 
 <30.0 kg/m2 2,055 ± 49.7 1,736 ± 52.8 157 ± 44.7 162 ± 32.9    
 >30.0 kg/m2 2,077 ± 50.3 1,552 ± 47.2 194 ± 55.3 331 ± 67.1    
Smoking currently 357 ± 8.7 238 ± 7.3 37 ± 10.5 82 ± 16.7 49.66 4.44§ 47.63 
Treatment intensity        
 None or diet 1,076 ± 25.7 910 ± 27.3 79 ± 22.1 87 ± 17.4 74.48 13.21 68.10 
 Oral hypoglycemic 1,973 ± 47.0 1,607 ± 48.2 160 ± 44.8 206 ± 41.1 df = 4 df = 2 df = 2 
 Insulin or insulin+ oral hypoglycemic 1,144 ± 27.3 818 ± 24.5 118 ± 33.1 208 ± 41.5    
VariablesTotal sampleNo depressionMinor depressionMajor depressionOverall test statistics (χ2, df = 2)Minor vs. none (χ2, df = 1)Major vs. none (χ2, df = 1)
n (%) 4,193* 3,335 (79.5) 357 (8.5) 501 (12)    
Women 2,042 (48.7) 1,567 (47.0) 182 (51.0) 293 (58.5) 23.86 1.91 22.59 
High school or less 1,047 (25.3) 801 (24.3) 112 (31.7) 134 (27.2) 10.33 8.94 1.74 
Unmarried and not living as married 1,403 (33.7) 1,068 (32.3) 132 (37.2) 203 (41.0) 14.89 3.30 14.41 
Employment: full or part time 1,677 (41.2) 1,339 (41.2) 126 (36.8) 212 (44.6) 4.99 2.22 1.91 
Caucasian 3,196 (77.7) 2,561 (78.2) 255 (72.2) 380 (77.9)    
African American 338 (8.2) 256 (7.8) 34 (9.6) 48 (9.8) 21.66 10.14§ 13.14 
Asian 369 (9.0) 306 (9.3) 36 (10.2) 27 (5.3) df = 6 df = 3  
Other 212 (5.2) 151 (4.6) 28 (7.9) 33 (6.8)    
     F(2, 4,190) t(3,690) t(3,834) 
Age in years 64.9 ± 12.6 64.9 ± 12.3 64.7 ± 13.3 59.7 ± 13.0 37.54 0.22 8.69 
Rx Risk score        
 First quartile 1,024 ± 24.4 810 ± 24.3 89 ± 24.9 125 ± 25.0    
 Second quartile 1,077 ± 25.7 895 ± 26.8 66 ± 18.5 116 ± 23.1 25.02 14.10 12.99 
 Third quartile 1,040 ± 24.8 838 ± 25.2 95 ± 26.6 107 ± 21.4 df = 6 df = 3 df = 4 
 Fourth quartile 1,052 ± 25.1 792 ± 23.7 107 ± 30.0 153 ± 30.5    
Diabetes complications        
 0 1,312 ± 31.3 1,094 ± 32.8 91 ± 25.5 127 ± 25.3    
 1 1,333 ± 31.8 1,078 ± 32.3 106 ± 29.7 149 ± 29.7 51.51 25.96 33.58 
 2 802 ± 19.1 619 ± 18.6 80 ± 22.4 103 ± 20.6 df = 8 df = 4 df = 2 
 3 423 ± 10.1 329 ± 9.9 35 ± 9.8 59 ± 11.8    
 4+ 323 ± 7.7 215 ± 6.4 45 ± 12.6 63 ± 12.6    
HbA1c level groups     27.06 1.79 25.94 
 <8.00% 2,667 ± 63.6 2,179 ± 65.3 220 ± 61.6 268 ± 53.5    
 ≥8.00% 1,526 ± 36.4 1,156 ± 34.7 137 ± 38.4 233 ± 46.5    
Duration of diabetes in years        
 >5 1,541 ± 36.8 1,269 ± 38.1 107 ± 30.1 165 ± 33.0 16.84 9.00 9.21 
 >5–9.9 1,097 ± 26.2 872 ± 26.2 103 ± 28.9 122 ± 24.4 df = 4 df = 2 df = 2 
 >10.0 1,548 ± 37.0 1,189 ± 35.7 146 ± 41.0 213 ± 42.6    
BMI     72.02 7.95 67.38 
 <30.0 kg/m2 2,055 ± 49.7 1,736 ± 52.8 157 ± 44.7 162 ± 32.9    
 >30.0 kg/m2 2,077 ± 50.3 1,552 ± 47.2 194 ± 55.3 331 ± 67.1    
Smoking currently 357 ± 8.7 238 ± 7.3 37 ± 10.5 82 ± 16.7 49.66 4.44§ 47.63 
Treatment intensity        
 None or diet 1,076 ± 25.7 910 ± 27.3 79 ± 22.1 87 ± 17.4 74.48 13.21 68.10 
 Oral hypoglycemic 1,973 ± 47.0 1,607 ± 48.2 160 ± 44.8 206 ± 41.1 df = 4 df = 2 df = 2 
 Insulin or insulin+ oral hypoglycemic 1,144 ± 27.3 818 ± 24.5 118 ± 33.1 208 ± 41.5    

Data are n (%) or mean ± SD.

*

Sample size may vary with 10% missing data. df = 1 unless otherwise indicated;

P > 0.001;

P < 0.01;

§

P < 0.05.

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