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Table 2—

Logistic regression models for major and minor depression versus no depression

Independent variables*Major depression
Minor depression
Odds ratio95% CIOdds ratio95% CI
Demographics     
 Age (years) 0.96 0.95–0.98 0.97 0.95–0.99 
 Female sex 2.29 1.47–3.55 0.99 0.77–1.28 
 High school or less 1.34 1.04–1.72 1.44 1.10–1.88 
 Unmarried and not living as married 1.41 1.13–1.77 1.16 0.90–1.50 
 Employed 0.78 0.60–1.02 0.85 0.62–1.18 
 Racial ethnicity     
  African American vs. Caucasian 1.21 0.80–1.80 1.11 0.70–1.75 
  Asian vs. Caucasian 0.85 0.54–1.34 1.52 1.01–2.30 
  Other vs. Caucasian 1.24 0.79–1.02 1.82 1.13–2.92 
Risk factors     
 BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2 1.76 1.39–2.22 1.57 1.21–2.03 
 Smoking 2.15 1.56–2.95 1.61 1.08–2.38 
Clinical factors     
 Rx Risk score     
  Second vs. first quartile 1.35 0.98–1.87 0.70 0.48–1.04 
  Third vs. first quartile 1.69 1.19–2.40 1.17 0.77–1.77 
  Fourth vs. first quartile 2.28 1.58–3.30 1.09 0.70–1.70 
 Duration of diabetes     
  5–9.9 years vs. <5 years 0.88 0.74–1.30 1.39 1.01–1.90 
  ≥10 years vs. <5 years 0.54 0.82–1.46 1.30 0.93–1.80 
 Diabetes complications     
  1 vs. 0 1.45 0.90–2.33 0.30 0.06–1.34 
  2 vs. 0 2.04 1.23–3.41 0.34 0.06–2.14 
  3 vs. 0 2.63 1.50–4.62 0.03 0.001–0.67 
  4+ vs. 0 3.08 1.67–5.69 0.003 .0001–0.09 
 Treatment intensity     
  Oral hypoglycemic vs. none or diet 1.04 0.78–1.40 1.00 0.73–1.37 
  Insulin vs. none or diet 1.54 1.08–2.19 1.22 0.83–1.79 
 HbA1c level groups     
  ≥8.0% 3.72 1.30–10.71 1.39 0.42–4.68 
 Age HbA1c ≥ 8.0% 0.98 0.97–0.99   
 Sex complications     
  1 vs. 0 0.63 0.35–1.13   
  2 vs. 0 0.46 0.24–0.87   
  3 vs. 0 0.24 0.11–0.52   
  4 vs. 0 0.38 0.17–0.84   
 Age complications     
  1 vs. 0   1.02 1.00–1.05 
  2 vs. 0   1.02 1.00–1.05 
  3 vs. 0   1.06 1.01–1.10 
  4 vs. 0   1.10 1.05–1.16 
Independent variables*Major depression
Minor depression
Odds ratio95% CIOdds ratio95% CI
Demographics     
 Age (years) 0.96 0.95–0.98 0.97 0.95–0.99 
 Female sex 2.29 1.47–3.55 0.99 0.77–1.28 
 High school or less 1.34 1.04–1.72 1.44 1.10–1.88 
 Unmarried and not living as married 1.41 1.13–1.77 1.16 0.90–1.50 
 Employed 0.78 0.60–1.02 0.85 0.62–1.18 
 Racial ethnicity     
  African American vs. Caucasian 1.21 0.80–1.80 1.11 0.70–1.75 
  Asian vs. Caucasian 0.85 0.54–1.34 1.52 1.01–2.30 
  Other vs. Caucasian 1.24 0.79–1.02 1.82 1.13–2.92 
Risk factors     
 BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2 1.76 1.39–2.22 1.57 1.21–2.03 
 Smoking 2.15 1.56–2.95 1.61 1.08–2.38 
Clinical factors     
 Rx Risk score     
  Second vs. first quartile 1.35 0.98–1.87 0.70 0.48–1.04 
  Third vs. first quartile 1.69 1.19–2.40 1.17 0.77–1.77 
  Fourth vs. first quartile 2.28 1.58–3.30 1.09 0.70–1.70 
 Duration of diabetes     
  5–9.9 years vs. <5 years 0.88 0.74–1.30 1.39 1.01–1.90 
  ≥10 years vs. <5 years 0.54 0.82–1.46 1.30 0.93–1.80 
 Diabetes complications     
  1 vs. 0 1.45 0.90–2.33 0.30 0.06–1.34 
  2 vs. 0 2.04 1.23–3.41 0.34 0.06–2.14 
  3 vs. 0 2.63 1.50–4.62 0.03 0.001–0.67 
  4+ vs. 0 3.08 1.67–5.69 0.003 .0001–0.09 
 Treatment intensity     
  Oral hypoglycemic vs. none or diet 1.04 0.78–1.40 1.00 0.73–1.37 
  Insulin vs. none or diet 1.54 1.08–2.19 1.22 0.83–1.79 
 HbA1c level groups     
  ≥8.0% 3.72 1.30–10.71 1.39 0.42–4.68 
 Age HbA1c ≥ 8.0% 0.98 0.97–0.99   
 Sex complications     
  1 vs. 0 0.63 0.35–1.13   
  2 vs. 0 0.46 0.24–0.87   
  3 vs. 0 0.24 0.11–0.52   
  4 vs. 0 0.38 0.17–0.84   
 Age complications     
  1 vs. 0   1.02 1.00–1.05 
  2 vs. 0   1.02 1.00–1.05 
  3 vs. 0   1.06 1.01–1.10 
  4 vs. 0   1.10 1.05–1.16 
*

Adjusted for clinic type.

P < 0.05.

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