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Table 1—

Risk for islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes in offspring stratified by family history

Family history variable (n)Multiple autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Cases5-year riskHRPCases5-year riskHRP
First-degree type 1 diabetes family history of neonate         
Total 51    24    
    One parent (1,565) 40 3.0 (2.1–3.9) 1*  17 0.8 (0.3–1.3) 1*  
    Both parents, no sibling (28) 23.3 (6.4–40.2) 8.5 (3.6–20) <10−4 10.9 (0.1–22.8) 13.6 (4.6–40) <10−4 
    Parent and sibling (17) 30.4 (7.7–53.1) 13.5 (5.3–34) <10−4 11.8 (0.1–27.4) 19.2 (5.6–65) <10−4 
Type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of child’s parent         
    None (1,372) 39 3.3 (2.3–4.3) 1*  20 0.9 (0.4–1.4) 1*  
    One or more (201) 10 5.6 (2.5–8.7) 1.8 (0.9–3.4) 0.08 1.8 (0.1–3.6) 1.4 (0.5–3.8) 0.5 
Family history variable (n)Multiple autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Cases5-year riskHRPCases5-year riskHRP
First-degree type 1 diabetes family history of neonate         
Total 51    24    
    One parent (1,565) 40 3.0 (2.1–3.9) 1*  17 0.8 (0.3–1.3) 1*  
    Both parents, no sibling (28) 23.3 (6.4–40.2) 8.5 (3.6–20) <10−4 10.9 (0.1–22.8) 13.6 (4.6–40) <10−4 
    Parent and sibling (17) 30.4 (7.7–53.1) 13.5 (5.3–34) <10−4 11.8 (0.1–27.4) 19.2 (5.6–65) <10−4 
Type 1 diabetes in first-degree relatives of child’s parent         
    None (1,372) 39 3.3 (2.3–4.3) 1*  20 0.9 (0.4–1.4) 1*  
    One or more (201) 10 5.6 (2.5–8.7) 1.8 (0.9–3.4) 0.08 1.8 (0.1–3.6) 1.4 (0.5–3.8) 0.5 

Data are % (95% CI).

*

Reference cell used in Cox analysis for calculation of HR;

parents and siblings of child’s parent (37 children were excluded because diabetes in the first-degree relatives of the parent was not defined as type 1 or type 2 diabetes).

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