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Table 3—

Risk for islet autoantibodies and diabetes in offspring categorized by combinations of familial and IDDM1 risk factors

Risk factor(s)Single islet autoantibodies*Multiple islet autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Subjects5-year riskSubjects5-year risk
None (n = 1,095) 24 11 1.0 (0.4–1.6) 0.3 (0.01–0.6) 
One (n = 287)   9.1 (6.0–12.1)  3.3 (1.2–4.4) 
    Moderate-risk HLA (n = 105) 8.0 (2.7–13.3) 1.9 (0.1–4.5) 
    High-risk HLA (n = 153) 21 14.9 (8.9–20.9) 10 3.6 (0.6–6.6) 
    Multiple first-degree history (29) 15.3 (1.1–29.5) 6.9 (0.1–16.1) 
Two (n = 16)   46.4 (22.4–68.8)  19.5 (0.1–39.5) 
    Moderate HLA, multiple FH (n = 3) 33.3 (0.1–87.7)  
    High-risk HLA, multiple FH (n = 13) 48.7 (19.7–77.7) 23.4 (0.1–50) 
Risk factor(s)Single islet autoantibodies*Multiple islet autoantibodies
Type 1 diabetes
Subjects5-year riskSubjects5-year risk
None (n = 1,095) 24 11 1.0 (0.4–1.6) 0.3 (0.01–0.6) 
One (n = 287)   9.1 (6.0–12.1)  3.3 (1.2–4.4) 
    Moderate-risk HLA (n = 105) 8.0 (2.7–13.3) 1.9 (0.1–4.5) 
    High-risk HLA (n = 153) 21 14.9 (8.9–20.9) 10 3.6 (0.6–6.6) 
    Multiple first-degree history (29) 15.3 (1.1–29.5) 6.9 (0.1–16.1) 
Two (n = 16)   46.4 (22.4–68.8)  19.5 (0.1–39.5) 
    Moderate HLA, multiple FH (n = 3) 33.3 (0.1–87.7)  
    High-risk HLA, multiple FH (n = 13) 48.7 (19.7–77.7) 23.4 (0.1–50) 

Data are % (95% CI).

*

Two children with single islet autoantibodies are not included due to missing HLA genotype. FH, family history.

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