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Table 1—

Distribution of characteristics in the population

CharacteristicsTotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
n 4192 881 988 1185 1138 
Baseline      
    Age (years) 24.9 ± 3.6 24.2 (3.7 25.4 (3.3 24.4 (3.8 25.5 (3.4 
    Sex (% male) 44.6     
    High school education or less (%) 66.7 81.8 53.7 80.4 51.9 
    BMI (kg/m224.2 ± 4.7 24.3 ± 3.9 24.0 ± 3.1 25.6 ± 6.2 22.9 ± 4.1 
    Baseline physical activity score (units) 421.3 ± 299.5 531.3 ± 344.4 513.0 ± 297.2 279.1 ± 229.4 404.6 ± 263.4 
    Smoking status (%)      
        Never 58.1 56.0 59.6 61.2 55.4 
        Former 13.2 9.1 15.1 8.7 19.3 
        Current 28.7 34.9 25.3 30.1 25.4 
    Alcohol intake      
        No drinks/day 22.9 23.7 14.9 34.4 17.2 
        One to three drinks/day 70.7 64.3 73.9 63.3 80.5 
        Three or more drinks/day 6.5 12.0 11.2 2.3 2.4 
    Energy from carbohydrates (%) 46.7 ± 7.3 45.9 ± 7.1 44.9 ± 6.8 48.3 ± 7.4 47.2 ± 7.3 
    Energy from total fat (%) 37.1 ± 5.8 37.9 ± 5.6 37.3 ± 5.4 37.3 ± 5.8 36.2 ± 6.3 
    Crude fiber (g) 5.6 ± 3.2 6.1 ± 3.5 6.5 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 3.0 5.4 ± 3.0 
Metabolic syndrome components      
    Waist circumference (cm) 77.1 ± 10.7 79.9 ± 9.1 82.3 ± 8.0 76.0 ± 12.5 71.4 ± 8.7 
    Glucose (mg/dl) 82.0 ± 12.7 83.3 ± 10.0 84.7 ± 10.9 80.1 ± 17.1 80.8 ± 10.1 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 53.6 ± 12.9 54.0 ± 13.3 47.5 ± 11.0 55.6 ± 12.6 56.5 ± 12.9 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 69.8 ± 41.9 67.8 ± 40.5 83.6 ± 57.2 61.8 ± 28.7 67.6 ± 35.6 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110.0 ± 10.7 115.5 ± 10.4 113.9 ± 10.0 107.9 ± 9.6 104.6 ± 9.1 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 68.4 ± 9.4 70.7 ± 10.0 70.4 ± 9.1 67.2 ± 9.3 66.1 ± 8.3 
Change in weight and physical activity      
    Weight change from baseline to year 15 (kg) 12.8 ± 12.1 14.1 ± 12.1 11.1 ± 9.4 16.2 ± 13.8 10.1 ± 11.7 
    Physical activity over time (%)*      
        Regular 16.3 26.6 25.1 3.2 13.4 
        Moderate 53.3 54.5 56.7 47.6 54.7 
        Low 30.4 18.9 18.2 49.3 31.9 
CharacteristicsTotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
n 4192 881 988 1185 1138 
Baseline      
    Age (years) 24.9 ± 3.6 24.2 (3.7 25.4 (3.3 24.4 (3.8 25.5 (3.4 
    Sex (% male) 44.6     
    High school education or less (%) 66.7 81.8 53.7 80.4 51.9 
    BMI (kg/m224.2 ± 4.7 24.3 ± 3.9 24.0 ± 3.1 25.6 ± 6.2 22.9 ± 4.1 
    Baseline physical activity score (units) 421.3 ± 299.5 531.3 ± 344.4 513.0 ± 297.2 279.1 ± 229.4 404.6 ± 263.4 
    Smoking status (%)      
        Never 58.1 56.0 59.6 61.2 55.4 
        Former 13.2 9.1 15.1 8.7 19.3 
        Current 28.7 34.9 25.3 30.1 25.4 
    Alcohol intake      
        No drinks/day 22.9 23.7 14.9 34.4 17.2 
        One to three drinks/day 70.7 64.3 73.9 63.3 80.5 
        Three or more drinks/day 6.5 12.0 11.2 2.3 2.4 
    Energy from carbohydrates (%) 46.7 ± 7.3 45.9 ± 7.1 44.9 ± 6.8 48.3 ± 7.4 47.2 ± 7.3 
    Energy from total fat (%) 37.1 ± 5.8 37.9 ± 5.6 37.3 ± 5.4 37.3 ± 5.8 36.2 ± 6.3 
    Crude fiber (g) 5.6 ± 3.2 6.1 ± 3.5 6.5 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 3.0 5.4 ± 3.0 
Metabolic syndrome components      
    Waist circumference (cm) 77.1 ± 10.7 79.9 ± 9.1 82.3 ± 8.0 76.0 ± 12.5 71.4 ± 8.7 
    Glucose (mg/dl) 82.0 ± 12.7 83.3 ± 10.0 84.7 ± 10.9 80.1 ± 17.1 80.8 ± 10.1 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 53.6 ± 12.9 54.0 ± 13.3 47.5 ± 11.0 55.6 ± 12.6 56.5 ± 12.9 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 69.8 ± 41.9 67.8 ± 40.5 83.6 ± 57.2 61.8 ± 28.7 67.6 ± 35.6 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110.0 ± 10.7 115.5 ± 10.4 113.9 ± 10.0 107.9 ± 9.6 104.6 ± 9.1 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 68.4 ± 9.4 70.7 ± 10.0 70.4 ± 9.1 67.2 ± 9.3 66.1 ± 8.3 
Change in weight and physical activity      
    Weight change from baseline to year 15 (kg) 12.8 ± 12.1 14.1 ± 12.1 11.1 ± 9.4 16.2 ± 13.8 10.1 ± 11.7 
    Physical activity over time (%)*      
        Regular 16.3 26.6 25.1 3.2 13.4 
        Moderate 53.3 54.5 56.7 47.6 54.7 
        Low 30.4 18.9 18.2 49.3 31.9 

Data are means ±SD unless otherwise indicated.

*

Regular physical activity, a physical activity score above the median (364) at all four examinations; moderately active, activity fluctuated around the median; low activity, physical activity score below the median at all four examinations.

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