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Table 2—

RRs of baseline characteristics and incident metabolic syndrome

TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Model 1      
    Age (per 5 years) 1.32 (1.17–1.48) 1.31 (1.01–1.70) 1.19 (0.93–1.52) 1.40 (1.16–1.69) 1.29 (0.98–1.68) 
    Race      
        Black 1.28 (1.08–1.51)     
        White 1.00 (referent)     
    Sex      
        Men 1.12 (0.95–1.32)     
        Women 1.00 (referent)     
Model 2 and model 1 + each variable individually      
    Education      
        High school or less 1.66 (1.36–2.03) 0.79 (0.50–1.24) 1.61 (1.15–2.25) 1.88 (1.25–2.83) 2.39 (1.60–3.57) 
        More than high school 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    BMI (per 4.7 kg/m21.89 (1.79–2.00) 2.32 (2.03–2.65) 3.00 (2.46–3.65) 1.58 (1.46–1.72) 2.19 (1.96–2.44) 
    Physical activity (per 299.5 units) 0.84 (0.76–0.92) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.87 (0.73–1.03) 1.01 (0.84–1.22) 0.64 (0.50–0.82) 
    Smoking status      
        Current 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.85 (0.56–1.30) 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 1.31 (0.95–1.80) 1.36 (0.91–2.03) 
        Former 1.00 (0.77–1.29) 0.64 (0.29–1.40) 1.26 (0.81–1.96) 1.23 (0.77–1.98) 0.76 (0.45–1.28) 
        Never 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Alcohol intake      
        No drinks/day 1.69 (1.41–2.03) 1.57 (1.03–2.41) 2.41 (1.67–3.49) 1.14 (0.84–1.54) 2.43 (1.65–3.58) 
        One to three drinks/day 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Three or more drinks/day 1.13 (0.79–1.60) 0.79 (0.39–1.59) 1.25 (0.74–2.09) 1.72 (0.76–3.92) 1.41 (0.45–4.47) 
    Carbohydrate intake (% energy)      
        Q1 (25–41%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Q2 (41–45%) 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 1.83 (1.05–3.18) 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 1.09 (0.63–1.89) 0.85 (0.47–1.56) 
        Q3 (45–48%) 0.95 (0.73–1.25) 0.95 (0.50–1.79) 0.86 (0.54–1.38) 1.41 (0.83–2.38) 0.71 (0.38–1.33) 
        Q4 (48–52%) 1.32 (1.02–1.70) 1.46 (0.78–2.72) 1.23 (0.79–1.91) 1.68 (1.02–2.77) 1.04 (0.59–1.81) 
        Q5 (52–85%) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 1.54 (0.85–2.81) 0.81 (0.46–1.43) 1.48 (0.91–2.41) 1.34 (0.79–2.27) 
    Crude fiber (g)      
        Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6) 1.41 (1.09–1.82) 2.02 (1.15–3.56) 1.08 (0.64–1.82) 1.08 (0.70–1.68) 2.07 (1.16–3.71) 
        Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0) 1.32 (1.02–1.71) 1.58 (0.86–2.88) 1.24 (0.77–2.02) 1.13 (0.71–1.80) 1.48 (0.84–2.59) 
        Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4) 1.26 (0.97–1.64) 0.85 (0.42–1.70) 1.33 (0.81–2.17) 1.36 (0.87–2.13) 1.37 (0.78,2.41) 
        Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5) 0.99 (0.75–1.31) 0.93 (0.45–1.90) 0.82 (0.49–1.38) 1.14 (0.71–1.84) 1.05 (0.58–1.89) 
        Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Total fat intake (% energy)      
        Q1 (11–33%) 1.26 (0.97–1.64) 1.63 (0.85–3.11) 1.27 (0.74–2.18) 1.26 (0.80–2.00) 0.95 (0.57–1.58) 
        Q2 (33–36%) 1.31 (1.01, 1.70) 1.60 (0.83, 3.08) 1.24 (0.74, 2.10) 1.52 (0.98–2.37) 0.94 (0.56–1.59) 
        Q3 (36–39%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Q4 (39–42%) 0.97 (0.74–1.28) 1.36 (0.73–2.55) 1.19 (0.71–1.99) 0.98 (0.61–1.59) 0.44 (0.21–0.91) 
        Q5 (42–59%) 1.37 (1.06–1.77) 1.74 (0.95–3.18) 1.86 (1.15–3.01) 1.02 (0.63–1.63) 1.15 (0.67–2.00) 
TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Model 1      
    Age (per 5 years) 1.32 (1.17–1.48) 1.31 (1.01–1.70) 1.19 (0.93–1.52) 1.40 (1.16–1.69) 1.29 (0.98–1.68) 
    Race      
        Black 1.28 (1.08–1.51)     
        White 1.00 (referent)     
    Sex      
        Men 1.12 (0.95–1.32)     
        Women 1.00 (referent)     
Model 2 and model 1 + each variable individually      
    Education      
        High school or less 1.66 (1.36–2.03) 0.79 (0.50–1.24) 1.61 (1.15–2.25) 1.88 (1.25–2.83) 2.39 (1.60–3.57) 
        More than high school 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    BMI (per 4.7 kg/m21.89 (1.79–2.00) 2.32 (2.03–2.65) 3.00 (2.46–3.65) 1.58 (1.46–1.72) 2.19 (1.96–2.44) 
    Physical activity (per 299.5 units) 0.84 (0.76–0.92) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.87 (0.73–1.03) 1.01 (0.84–1.22) 0.64 (0.50–0.82) 
    Smoking status      
        Current 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 0.85 (0.56–1.30) 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 1.31 (0.95–1.80) 1.36 (0.91–2.03) 
        Former 1.00 (0.77–1.29) 0.64 (0.29–1.40) 1.26 (0.81–1.96) 1.23 (0.77–1.98) 0.76 (0.45–1.28) 
        Never 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Alcohol intake      
        No drinks/day 1.69 (1.41–2.03) 1.57 (1.03–2.41) 2.41 (1.67–3.49) 1.14 (0.84–1.54) 2.43 (1.65–3.58) 
        One to three drinks/day 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Three or more drinks/day 1.13 (0.79–1.60) 0.79 (0.39–1.59) 1.25 (0.74–2.09) 1.72 (0.76–3.92) 1.41 (0.45–4.47) 
    Carbohydrate intake (% energy)      
        Q1 (25–41%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Q2 (41–45%) 1.03 (0.79–1.34) 1.83 (1.05–3.18) 0.77 (0.49–1.21) 1.09 (0.63–1.89) 0.85 (0.47–1.56) 
        Q3 (45–48%) 0.95 (0.73–1.25) 0.95 (0.50–1.79) 0.86 (0.54–1.38) 1.41 (0.83–2.38) 0.71 (0.38–1.33) 
        Q4 (48–52%) 1.32 (1.02–1.70) 1.46 (0.78–2.72) 1.23 (0.79–1.91) 1.68 (1.02–2.77) 1.04 (0.59–1.81) 
        Q5 (52–85%) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 1.54 (0.85–2.81) 0.81 (0.46–1.43) 1.48 (0.91–2.41) 1.34 (0.79–2.27) 
    Crude fiber (g)      
        Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6) 1.41 (1.09–1.82) 2.02 (1.15–3.56) 1.08 (0.64–1.82) 1.08 (0.70–1.68) 2.07 (1.16–3.71) 
        Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0) 1.32 (1.02–1.71) 1.58 (0.86–2.88) 1.24 (0.77–2.02) 1.13 (0.71–1.80) 1.48 (0.84–2.59) 
        Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4) 1.26 (0.97–1.64) 0.85 (0.42–1.70) 1.33 (0.81–2.17) 1.36 (0.87–2.13) 1.37 (0.78,2.41) 
        Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5) 0.99 (0.75–1.31) 0.93 (0.45–1.90) 0.82 (0.49–1.38) 1.14 (0.71–1.84) 1.05 (0.58–1.89) 
        Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Total fat intake (% energy)      
        Q1 (11–33%) 1.26 (0.97–1.64) 1.63 (0.85–3.11) 1.27 (0.74–2.18) 1.26 (0.80–2.00) 0.95 (0.57–1.58) 
        Q2 (33–36%) 1.31 (1.01, 1.70) 1.60 (0.83, 3.08) 1.24 (0.74, 2.10) 1.52 (0.98–2.37) 0.94 (0.56–1.59) 
        Q3 (36–39%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
        Q4 (39–42%) 0.97 (0.74–1.28) 1.36 (0.73–2.55) 1.19 (0.71–1.99) 0.98 (0.61–1.59) 0.44 (0.21–0.91) 
        Q5 (42–59%) 1.37 (1.06–1.77) 1.74 (0.95–3.18) 1.86 (1.15–3.01) 1.02 (0.63–1.63) 1.15 (0.67–2.00) 

Data are RR (95% CI). Q, quintile.

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