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Table 3—

Multivariable RRs of baseline characteristics and incident metabolic syndrome

TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Age (per 5 years) 1.26 (1.11–1.42) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 1.09 (0.83–1.44) 1.31 (1.07–1.61) 1.53 (1.14–2.05) 
Race      
    Black 0.73 (0.60–0.87)     
    White 1.00 (referent)     
Sex      
    Men 1.55 (1.28–1.88)     
    Women 1.00 (referent)     
Education      
    High school or less 1.52 (1.24–1.87) 1.10 (0.67–1.83) 1.34 (0.94–1.93) 1.84 (1.20–2.82) 1.63 (1.05–2.52) 
    More than high school 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
BMI (per 4.7 kg/m21.89 (1.77–2.00) 2.44 (2.06–2.88) 2.95 (2.37–3.67) 1.63 (1.50–1.77) 2.18 (1.89–2.51) 
Physical activity (per 299.5 units) 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 0.99 (0.82–1.20) 0.92 (0.77–1.11) 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 
Smoking status      
    Current 1.18 (0.97–1.45) 1.52 (0.93–2.47) 1.14 (0.75–1.73) 1.28 (0.91–1.79) 0.99 (0.62–1.56) 
    Former 1.02 (0.79–1.33) 0.73 (0.33–1.64) 1.45 (0.91–2.31) 1.12 (0.69–1.82) 0.76 (0.44–1.31) 
    Never 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Alcohol intake      
    No drinks/day 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 1.40 (0.88–2.23) 2.05 (1.34–3.13) 1.06 (0.76–1.48) 1.46 (0.92–2.30) 
    One to three drinks/day 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    More than three drinks/day 1.24 (0.83–1.85) 1.04 (0.45–2.42) 1.26 (0.68–2.32) 2.10 (0.78–5.70) 1.58 (0.47–5.35) 
Carbohydrate intake (% energy)      
    Q1 (25–41%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Q2 (41–45%) 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 1.30 (0.69–2.45) 1.13 (0.67–1.89) 1.56 (0.87–2.82) 1.15 (0.57–2.29) 
    Q3 (45–48%) 1.30 (0.94–1.80) 1.25 (0.61–2.56) 1.10 (0.58–2.07) 2.10 (1.11–3.97) 0.79 (0.37–1.68) 
    Q4 (48–52%) 1.85 (1.30–2.65) 2.41 (1.09–5.32) 1.91 (0.95–3.86) 2.56 (1.28–5.12) 0.99 (0.46–2.13) 
    Q5 (52–85%) 1.63 (1.06–2.51) 1.98 (0.70–5.55) 1.22 (0.48–3.14) 2.17 (0.98–4.81) 1.16 (0.50–2.70) 
Crude fiber (g)      
    Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6) 1.12 (0.86–1.47) 1.73 (0.90–3.33) 0.88 (0.50–1.53) 0.88 (0.55–1.40) 1.53 (0.81–2.88) 
    Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0) 1.14 (0.87–1.49) 1.43 (0.74–2.78) 1.23 (0.73–2.07) 1.02 (0.63–1.66) 1.01 (0.55–1.88) 
    Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4) 1.00 (0.76–1.32) 0.95 (0.45–1.97) 1.24 (0.74–2.08) 0.97 (0.60–1.57) 1.05 (0.57–1.90) 
    Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5) 0.92 (0.69–1.22) 0.80 (0.37–1.75) 0.93 (0.54–1.59) 0.95 (0.58–1.55) 1.14 (0.61–2.11) 
    Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Total fat intake (% energy)      
    Q1 (11–33%) 1.00 (0.71–1.41) 1.37 (0.58–3.24) 1.23 (0.62–2.46) 0.96 (0.51–1.80) 0.85 (0.44–1.62) 
    Q2 (33–36%) 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 1.70 (0.83–3.46) 1.21 (0.67–2.18) 1.37 (0.84–2.25) 0.81 (0.44–1.47) 
    Q3 (36–39%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Q4 (39–42%) 1.04 (0.77–1.39) 1.19 (0.61–2.35) 1.18 (0.67–2.09) 1.17 (0.68–2.01) 0.32 (0.14–0.73) 
    Q5 (42–59%) 1.64 (1.19–2.25) 2.15 (1.08–4.31) 2.09 (1.12–3.87) 1.60 (0.86–2.99) 1.02 (0.51–2.04) 
TotalMen
Women
BlackWhiteBlackWhite
Age (per 5 years) 1.26 (1.11–1.42) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 1.09 (0.83–1.44) 1.31 (1.07–1.61) 1.53 (1.14–2.05) 
Race      
    Black 0.73 (0.60–0.87)     
    White 1.00 (referent)     
Sex      
    Men 1.55 (1.28–1.88)     
    Women 1.00 (referent)     
Education      
    High school or less 1.52 (1.24–1.87) 1.10 (0.67–1.83) 1.34 (0.94–1.93) 1.84 (1.20–2.82) 1.63 (1.05–2.52) 
    More than high school 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
BMI (per 4.7 kg/m21.89 (1.77–2.00) 2.44 (2.06–2.88) 2.95 (2.37–3.67) 1.63 (1.50–1.77) 2.18 (1.89–2.51) 
Physical activity (per 299.5 units) 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 0.99 (0.82–1.20) 0.92 (0.77–1.11) 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 
Smoking status      
    Current 1.18 (0.97–1.45) 1.52 (0.93–2.47) 1.14 (0.75–1.73) 1.28 (0.91–1.79) 0.99 (0.62–1.56) 
    Former 1.02 (0.79–1.33) 0.73 (0.33–1.64) 1.45 (0.91–2.31) 1.12 (0.69–1.82) 0.76 (0.44–1.31) 
    Never 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Alcohol intake      
    No drinks/day 1.36 (1.11–1.66) 1.40 (0.88–2.23) 2.05 (1.34–3.13) 1.06 (0.76–1.48) 1.46 (0.92–2.30) 
    One to three drinks/day 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    More than three drinks/day 1.24 (0.83–1.85) 1.04 (0.45–2.42) 1.26 (0.68–2.32) 2.10 (0.78–5.70) 1.58 (0.47–5.35) 
Carbohydrate intake (% energy)      
    Q1 (25–41%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Q2 (41–45%) 1.28 (0.96–1.70) 1.30 (0.69–2.45) 1.13 (0.67–1.89) 1.56 (0.87–2.82) 1.15 (0.57–2.29) 
    Q3 (45–48%) 1.30 (0.94–1.80) 1.25 (0.61–2.56) 1.10 (0.58–2.07) 2.10 (1.11–3.97) 0.79 (0.37–1.68) 
    Q4 (48–52%) 1.85 (1.30–2.65) 2.41 (1.09–5.32) 1.91 (0.95–3.86) 2.56 (1.28–5.12) 0.99 (0.46–2.13) 
    Q5 (52–85%) 1.63 (1.06–2.51) 1.98 (0.70–5.55) 1.22 (0.48–3.14) 2.17 (0.98–4.81) 1.16 (0.50–2.70) 
Crude fiber (g)      
    Q1: F (0.3–2.7)/M (0.6–3.6) 1.12 (0.86–1.47) 1.73 (0.90–3.33) 0.88 (0.50–1.53) 0.88 (0.55–1.40) 1.53 (0.81–2.88) 
    Q2: F (2.8–3.8)/M (3.6–5.0) 1.14 (0.87–1.49) 1.43 (0.74–2.78) 1.23 (0.73–2.07) 1.02 (0.63–1.66) 1.01 (0.55–1.88) 
    Q3: F (3.8–5.0)/M (5.0–6.4) 1.00 (0.76–1.32) 0.95 (0.45–1.97) 1.24 (0.74–2.08) 0.97 (0.60–1.57) 1.05 (0.57–1.90) 
    Q4: F (5.0–6.9)/M (6.4–8.5) 0.92 (0.69–1.22) 0.80 (0.37–1.75) 0.93 (0.54–1.59) 0.95 (0.58–1.55) 1.14 (0.61–2.11) 
    Q5: F (6.9–33)/M (8.6–29.8) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Total fat intake (% energy)      
    Q1 (11–33%) 1.00 (0.71–1.41) 1.37 (0.58–3.24) 1.23 (0.62–2.46) 0.96 (0.51–1.80) 0.85 (0.44–1.62) 
    Q2 (33–36%) 1.18 (0.89–1.57) 1.70 (0.83–3.46) 1.21 (0.67–2.18) 1.37 (0.84–2.25) 0.81 (0.44–1.47) 
    Q3 (36–39%) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
    Q4 (39–42%) 1.04 (0.77–1.39) 1.19 (0.61–2.35) 1.18 (0.67–2.09) 1.17 (0.68–2.01) 0.32 (0.14–0.73) 
    Q5 (42–59%) 1.64 (1.19–2.25) 2.15 (1.08–4.31) 2.09 (1.12–3.87) 1.60 (0.86–2.99) 1.02 (0.51–2.04) 

Data are RR (95% CI). Q, quintile.

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