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Table 2—

Antihypertensive medication use and the age-adjusted and multivariate relative risk of incident, symptomatic type 2 diabetes in hypertensive older women (NHS I), 1994–2002

MedicationCasesPerson-yearsAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate RR (95% CI)*
Thiazide diuretics     
    No 723 193,271 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 243 51,389 1.30 (1.12–1.50) 1.20 (1.04–1.40) 
β-Blockers     
    No 668 183,053 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 298 61,608 1.34 (1.17–1.54) 1.25 (1.08–1.43) 
Calcium channel blockers     
    No 749 196,586 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 217 48,074 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 
ACE inhibitors     
    No 578 149,970 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 133 38,016 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 0.91 (0.75–1.10) 
Other     
    No 811 212,345 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 155 32,315 1.27 (1.07–1.51) 1.19 (1.00–1.42) 
MedicationCasesPerson-yearsAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate RR (95% CI)*
Thiazide diuretics     
    No 723 193,271 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 243 51,389 1.30 (1.12–1.50) 1.20 (1.04–1.40) 
β-Blockers     
    No 668 183,053 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 298 61,608 1.34 (1.17–1.54) 1.25 (1.08–1.43) 
Calcium channel blockers     
    No 749 196,586 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 217 48,074 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 
ACE inhibitors     
    No 578 149,970 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 133 38,016 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 0.91 (0.75–1.10) 
Other     
    No 811 212,345 1.0 (referent) 1.0 (referent) 
    Yes 155 32,315 1.27 (1.07–1.51) 1.19 (1.00–1.42) 
*

Adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), use of each class of antihypertensive medication (yes or no), physical activity (quintiles), smoking (current, past, or never), family history of diabetes, alcohol intake (seven categories), quintiles of dietary intake (glycemic load, calcium, magnesium, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fat, and cereal fiber), medication use (furosemide, digoxin, and lipid-lowering medications), menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (current, past, or never), and comorbid conditions (coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure).

Follow-up began in 1996.

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