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Table 2—

Epidemiological data on hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes, expressed as prevalence

StudyJennings, Wilson, and Ward, 1989 (ref. 75)U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 33, 1998 (ref. 2)Hepburn, 1993 (ref. 83)*VA CSDM, 1995(ref. 74)Miller et al., 2001(ref. 76)Henderson et al., 2003 (ref. 82)*Leese et al., 2003 (ref. 79)Donnelly et al., 2005 (ref. 81)*
Design Retrospective, structured interview Prospective multicentre randomized clinical trial Retrospective, questionnaire Prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial Retrospective, interview Retrospective questionnaire Population-based dataset analysis Prospective 
Subjects Type 2 diabetes, oral antidiabetic agents only Type 2 diabetes, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin Types 1 and 2 diabetes, insulin only All type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Insulin-treated type 2 diabetes Mixed type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin Insulin-treated type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects 
Number 219 (sulfonylurea 203, metformin 16) 3,935 104 type 1 and 104 type 2 diabetic subjects 153 1,055 215 160 94 type 1 and 173 type 2 diabetic subjects 
Age 59 (40–65) 54 ± 8 63 ± 9 60 ± 6 60.9 ± 0.4 (means ± SE) 68 (27–87) 53.8 (50.8–56.9) 66 (34–86) 
A1C % — 6.2 ± 1.2 — 9.3 ± 1.8 7.6 ± 0.1 (means ± SE) 8.6 ± 1.5 7.85 (7.57–8.14) 8.9 ± 1.41 
HbA1% Subjects with hypoglycemia 9.5 ± 9, subjects without hypoglycemia 11.4 ± 3.0 — 10.3 ± 2 — — — — — 
Duration 6 months 10 years 1 year 18–35 months 7 months 1 year 1 year 1 month 
Definition of severe hypoglycemia NA Third party assistance Third party assistance Third party assistance/LOC/fit Third party assistance Third party assistance Need for parenteral treatment by emergency services Third party assistance 
Oral antidiabetic agents: all hypoglycemia Metformin 0%, sulfonylurea 20.2% (glyburide 31.3%, chlorpropamide 13.6%, gliclazide 13.1%) Glyburide 17.0%, chlorpropamide 11.0% NA NA 16% NA NA NA 
Oral antidiabetic agents: severe hypoglycemia — Glyburide 0.6%, chlorpropamide 0.4% NA NA 0% NA 0.8% NA 
Insulin: all hypoglycemia NA 36.5% 82.7% 56% (conventional), 93% (intensive) 30% 64% NA 45% 
Insulin: severe hypoglycemia NA 2.3% 10% NA 0% 15% 7.3% 3% 
Main criticisms Recall bias for mild hypoglycemia Atypical intensively managed group. Under-recording of events — All male, intensively managed Recall bias. Mainly female African Americans Recall bias for mild hypoglycemia Only assessed hypoglycemia requiring emergency services Short duration 
StudyJennings, Wilson, and Ward, 1989 (ref. 75)U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study 33, 1998 (ref. 2)Hepburn, 1993 (ref. 83)*VA CSDM, 1995(ref. 74)Miller et al., 2001(ref. 76)Henderson et al., 2003 (ref. 82)*Leese et al., 2003 (ref. 79)Donnelly et al., 2005 (ref. 81)*
Design Retrospective, structured interview Prospective multicentre randomized clinical trial Retrospective, questionnaire Prospective multicenter randomized clinical trial Retrospective, interview Retrospective questionnaire Population-based dataset analysis Prospective 
Subjects Type 2 diabetes, oral antidiabetic agents only Type 2 diabetes, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin Types 1 and 2 diabetes, insulin only All type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Insulin-treated type 2 diabetes Mixed type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects, oral antidiabetic agents and insulin Insulin-treated type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects 
Number 219 (sulfonylurea 203, metformin 16) 3,935 104 type 1 and 104 type 2 diabetic subjects 153 1,055 215 160 94 type 1 and 173 type 2 diabetic subjects 
Age 59 (40–65) 54 ± 8 63 ± 9 60 ± 6 60.9 ± 0.4 (means ± SE) 68 (27–87) 53.8 (50.8–56.9) 66 (34–86) 
A1C % — 6.2 ± 1.2 — 9.3 ± 1.8 7.6 ± 0.1 (means ± SE) 8.6 ± 1.5 7.85 (7.57–8.14) 8.9 ± 1.41 
HbA1% Subjects with hypoglycemia 9.5 ± 9, subjects without hypoglycemia 11.4 ± 3.0 — 10.3 ± 2 — — — — — 
Duration 6 months 10 years 1 year 18–35 months 7 months 1 year 1 year 1 month 
Definition of severe hypoglycemia NA Third party assistance Third party assistance Third party assistance/LOC/fit Third party assistance Third party assistance Need for parenteral treatment by emergency services Third party assistance 
Oral antidiabetic agents: all hypoglycemia Metformin 0%, sulfonylurea 20.2% (glyburide 31.3%, chlorpropamide 13.6%, gliclazide 13.1%) Glyburide 17.0%, chlorpropamide 11.0% NA NA 16% NA NA NA 
Oral antidiabetic agents: severe hypoglycemia — Glyburide 0.6%, chlorpropamide 0.4% NA NA 0% NA 0.8% NA 
Insulin: all hypoglycemia NA 36.5% 82.7% 56% (conventional), 93% (intensive) 30% 64% NA 45% 
Insulin: severe hypoglycemia NA 2.3% 10% NA 0% 15% 7.3% 3% 
Main criticisms Recall bias for mild hypoglycemia Atypical intensively managed group. Under-recording of events — All male, intensively managed Recall bias. Mainly female African Americans Recall bias for mild hypoglycemia Only assessed hypoglycemia requiring emergency services Short duration 

Data are means ± SD or median (range), unless otherwise indicated. LOC, loss of consciousness; NA, not applicable; VA CSDM, Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study in Type 2 Diabetes.

*

Only figures for type 2 diabetes given.

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