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Table 2—

Association of digestible carbohydrate intake, fiber, glycemic index, and glycemic load with measures of SI, insulin secretion, and adiposity, IRAS Exam I, 1992–1994 (n = 979)

Digestible carbohydrate
Fiber
Glycemic index
Glycemic load
Modelβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*P
SI (min−1 · μU−1 · mL−1 · 10−4        
    1 −0.0048 (0.0019) 0.010 −0.0068 (0.0217) 0.754 −0.0048 (0.0030) 0.111 −0.0058 (0.0021) 0.007 
    2 −0.0039 (0.0020) 0.055 0.0288 (0.0229) 0.210 −0.0048 (0.0033) 0.138 −0.0051 (0.0024) 0.032 
    3 0.0002 (0.0028) 0.942 0.1250 (0.0306) <0.001 −0.0034 (0.0033) 0.296 −0.0005 (0.0035) 0.881 
Fasting insulin (pmol/ml)         
    1 0.0097 (0.0021) <0.001 0.0641 (0.0253) 0.012 0.0047 (0.0035) 0.181 0.0113 (0.0025) <0.001 
    2 0.0086 (0.0024) <0.001 0.0327 (0.0271) 0.227 0.0034 (0.0039) 0.378 0.0105 (0.0028) <0.001 
    3 0.0030 (0.0033) 0.360 −0.0815 (0.0361) 0.024 0.0008 (0.0039) 0.842 0.0038 (0.0041) 0.348 
AIR (μU · ml−1 · min−1        
    1 0.0049 (0.0024) 0.041 0.0056 (0.0279) 0.842 0.0119 (0.0038) 0.002 0.0067 (0.0027) 0.015 
    2 0.0009 (0.0026) 0.736 −0.0078 (0.0291) 0.789 0.0013 (0.0041) 0.760 0.0011 (0.0030) 0.709 
    3 −0.0003 (0.0036) 0.944 −0.0317 (0.0393) 0.420 0.0009 (0.0042) 0.827 −0.0002 (0.0045) 0.968 
Disposition index         
    1 0.0001 (0.0027) 0.971 −0.0013 (0.0319) 0.969 0.0071 (0.0044) 0.107 0.0008 (0.0032) 0.790 
    2 −0.0030 (0.0029) 0.310 0.0210 (0.0336) 0.533 −0.0036 (0.0048) 0.456 −0.0040 (0.0035) 0.256 
    3 −0.00005 (0.0042) 0.990 0.0933 (0.0452) 0.039 −0.0025 (0.0048) 0.602 −0.0007 (0.0051) 0.891 
BMI (kg/m2        
    1 0.0618 (0.0194) 0.001 0.3851 (0.2273) 0.091 −0.0063 (0.0315) 0.841 0.0676 (0.0224) 0.003 
    2 0.0773 (0.0211) <0.001 0.3415 (0.2416) 0.158 0.0279 (0.0344) 0.418 0.0947 (0.0250) <0.001 
    3 0.0004 (0.0295) 0.990 −0.7954 (0.3212) 0.013 −0.0009 (0.0344) 0.978 −0.0006 (0.0364) 0.988 
Waist (cm)         
    1 0.2880 (0.0433) <0.001 1.8627 (0.5148) <0.001 0.2650 (0.0713) <0.001 0.3540 (0.0500) <0.001 
    2 0.1889 (0.0463) <0.001 0.7238 (0.5320) 0.174 0.1148 (0.0757) 0.130 0.2378 (0.0550) <0.001 
    3 0.0449 (0.0650) 0.490 −1.8755 (0.7067) 0.008 0.0542 (0.0758) 0.475 0.0708 (0.0803) 0.378 
Digestible carbohydrate
Fiber
Glycemic index
Glycemic load
Modelβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*Pβ (SE)*P
SI (min−1 · μU−1 · mL−1 · 10−4        
    1 −0.0048 (0.0019) 0.010 −0.0068 (0.0217) 0.754 −0.0048 (0.0030) 0.111 −0.0058 (0.0021) 0.007 
    2 −0.0039 (0.0020) 0.055 0.0288 (0.0229) 0.210 −0.0048 (0.0033) 0.138 −0.0051 (0.0024) 0.032 
    3 0.0002 (0.0028) 0.942 0.1250 (0.0306) <0.001 −0.0034 (0.0033) 0.296 −0.0005 (0.0035) 0.881 
Fasting insulin (pmol/ml)         
    1 0.0097 (0.0021) <0.001 0.0641 (0.0253) 0.012 0.0047 (0.0035) 0.181 0.0113 (0.0025) <0.001 
    2 0.0086 (0.0024) <0.001 0.0327 (0.0271) 0.227 0.0034 (0.0039) 0.378 0.0105 (0.0028) <0.001 
    3 0.0030 (0.0033) 0.360 −0.0815 (0.0361) 0.024 0.0008 (0.0039) 0.842 0.0038 (0.0041) 0.348 
AIR (μU · ml−1 · min−1        
    1 0.0049 (0.0024) 0.041 0.0056 (0.0279) 0.842 0.0119 (0.0038) 0.002 0.0067 (0.0027) 0.015 
    2 0.0009 (0.0026) 0.736 −0.0078 (0.0291) 0.789 0.0013 (0.0041) 0.760 0.0011 (0.0030) 0.709 
    3 −0.0003 (0.0036) 0.944 −0.0317 (0.0393) 0.420 0.0009 (0.0042) 0.827 −0.0002 (0.0045) 0.968 
Disposition index         
    1 0.0001 (0.0027) 0.971 −0.0013 (0.0319) 0.969 0.0071 (0.0044) 0.107 0.0008 (0.0032) 0.790 
    2 −0.0030 (0.0029) 0.310 0.0210 (0.0336) 0.533 −0.0036 (0.0048) 0.456 −0.0040 (0.0035) 0.256 
    3 −0.00005 (0.0042) 0.990 0.0933 (0.0452) 0.039 −0.0025 (0.0048) 0.602 −0.0007 (0.0051) 0.891 
BMI (kg/m2        
    1 0.0618 (0.0194) 0.001 0.3851 (0.2273) 0.091 −0.0063 (0.0315) 0.841 0.0676 (0.0224) 0.003 
    2 0.0773 (0.0211) <0.001 0.3415 (0.2416) 0.158 0.0279 (0.0344) 0.418 0.0947 (0.0250) <0.001 
    3 0.0004 (0.0295) 0.990 −0.7954 (0.3212) 0.013 −0.0009 (0.0344) 0.978 −0.0006 (0.0364) 0.988 
Waist (cm)         
    1 0.2880 (0.0433) <0.001 1.8627 (0.5148) <0.001 0.2650 (0.0713) <0.001 0.3540 (0.0500) <0.001 
    2 0.1889 (0.0463) <0.001 0.7238 (0.5320) 0.174 0.1148 (0.0757) 0.130 0.2378 (0.0550) <0.001 
    3 0.0449 (0.0650) 0.490 −1.8755 (0.7067) 0.008 0.0542 (0.0758) 0.475 0.0708 (0.0803) 0.378 
*

β values are shown for lnSI, ln fasting insulin, lnAIR, ln disposition index, BMI, and waist circumference for a 10-unit increase in digestible carbohydrate intake, fiber intake, and glycemic load and for a 1-unit increase in glycemic index. Model 1: Unadjusted. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/clinic, family history of diabetes, current smoking status, and total energy expenditure. Model 3: Model 2 further adjusted for energy intake from noncarbohydrates by energy partition method.

Model 3 for fiber: Model 2 further adjusted for total energy intake.

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