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Table 1—

Clinical characteristics at baseline and at 1 and 2 years in children with type 1 diabetes treated with diazoxide (n = 27) or placebo (n = 29)

ParametersBaseline
1 year
2 years
DiazoxidePlaceboDiazoxidePlaceboDiazoxidePlacebo
Age (years) 11.3 ± 2.6 11.6 ± 2.6 — — — — 
Sex (boys/girls) 18/9 17/12 — — — — 
HbA1c (%) 10.3 ± 2.1 10.0 ± 2.6 6.3 ± 1.3 6.9 ± 1.7 7.1 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 1.8 
Insulin dose (units/kg−24 h1.09 ± 0.51 1.10 ± 0.40 0.71 ± 0.32 0.80 ± 0.26 0.85 ± 0.29 1.00 ± 0.25 
GAD65Ab* 18/27 19/29 14/26 17/29 16/27 14/28 
IA-2Ab 21/27 18/29 17/27 13/29 14/27 12/29 
ICA 24/27 25/29 ND ND ND ND 
C-peptide (nmol/l)       
    Fasting 0.17 (0.12/0.22) 0.16 (0.11/0.20) 0.27 (0.20/0.34) 0.21 (0.16/0.26) 0.18 (0.12/0.24) 0.14 (0.10/0.19) 
    Stimulated 0.29 (0.18/0.39) 0.30 (0.21/0.38) 0.43 (0.35/0.52)§ 0.31 (0.21/0.41) 0.24 (0.15/0.34) 0.20 (0.11/0.29) 
Baseline to 1 year       
    Δ fasting   0.10 (0.03/0.17) 0.05 (0.00/0.10)   
    Δ stimulated   0.14 (0.03/0.26) 0.02 (−0.09/0.12)   
Baseline to 2 year       
    Δ fasting     0.01 (−0.04/0.06) −0.01 (−0.06/0.04) 
    Δ stimulated     −0.05 (−0.17/0.07) −0.18 (−0.31/−0.04) 
ParametersBaseline
1 year
2 years
DiazoxidePlaceboDiazoxidePlaceboDiazoxidePlacebo
Age (years) 11.3 ± 2.6 11.6 ± 2.6 — — — — 
Sex (boys/girls) 18/9 17/12 — — — — 
HbA1c (%) 10.3 ± 2.1 10.0 ± 2.6 6.3 ± 1.3 6.9 ± 1.7 7.1 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 1.8 
Insulin dose (units/kg−24 h1.09 ± 0.51 1.10 ± 0.40 0.71 ± 0.32 0.80 ± 0.26 0.85 ± 0.29 1.00 ± 0.25 
GAD65Ab* 18/27 19/29 14/26 17/29 16/27 14/28 
IA-2Ab 21/27 18/29 17/27 13/29 14/27 12/29 
ICA 24/27 25/29 ND ND ND ND 
C-peptide (nmol/l)       
    Fasting 0.17 (0.12/0.22) 0.16 (0.11/0.20) 0.27 (0.20/0.34) 0.21 (0.16/0.26) 0.18 (0.12/0.24) 0.14 (0.10/0.19) 
    Stimulated 0.29 (0.18/0.39) 0.30 (0.21/0.38) 0.43 (0.35/0.52)§ 0.31 (0.21/0.41) 0.24 (0.15/0.34) 0.20 (0.11/0.29) 
Baseline to 1 year       
    Δ fasting   0.10 (0.03/0.17) 0.05 (0.00/0.10)   
    Δ stimulated   0.14 (0.03/0.26) 0.02 (−0.09/0.12)   
Baseline to 2 year       
    Δ fasting     0.01 (−0.04/0.06) −0.01 (−0.06/0.04) 
    Δ stimulated     −0.05 (−0.17/0.07) −0.18 (−0.31/−0.04) 

Data are mean ± SD and, for C-peptide concentrations, 95% CI. Antibodies, positive/total number analyzed; ND, not determined.

*

GAD65Ab, antibodies of the 65 kDa isoform of GAD;

IA-2Ab, antibodies of the protein tyrosine phosphatase–related IA molecule;

ICA, islet cell antibodies;

§

P = 0.018;

n = 19;

n = 17.

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