Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Baseline characteristics among 37,309 women according to intakes of total meat, red meat, and processed meat comparing highest quintile (Q5) to lowest quintile (Q1) in the WHS

Quintile of intakeTotal meat
Red meat
Processed meat
Q1Q5Q1Q5Q1Q5
Median intake (servings/day) 0.63 2.27 0.13 1.42 0.56 
Age (years) 54.6 ± 7.5 53.5 ± 6.7 54.3 ± 7.2 53.5 ± 6.8 54.0 ± 7.0 54.0 ± 7.1 
Smoking (%)       
    Current 11.4 15.3 7.97 18.8 7.65 20.8 
    Never 51.3 51.5 51.5 50.3 53.6 47.2 
    Past 37.4 33.2 40.5 30.9 38.8 32.0 
Exercise (%)       
    Rarely/never 36.5 40.7 30.0 47.0 30.7 46.7 
    <1/week 17.2 22.5 15.8 22.2 16.2 22.3 
    1–3/week 32.2 29.2 36.0 25.1 36.1 25.1 
    ≥4/week 14.2 7.65 18.2 5.74 17.0 5.95 
Alcohol consumption (%)       
    Rarely never 49.2 45.9 46.5 48.2 45.2 46.3 
    1–3 drinks/month 12.8 12.4 13.3 12.2 13.4 12.3 
    1–6 drinks/week 28.7 31.3 30.9 29.3 31.8 30.2 
    ≥1 drink/day 9.29 10.4 9.33 10.3 9.67 11.2 
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)       
    Never 46.0 49.3 46.4 50.2 46.1 49.4 
    Past 10.7 10.8 10.3 10.9 9.60 11.5 
    Current 43.4 40.0 43.3 39.0 44.3 39.1 
Mean BMI (kg/m224.8 ± 4.3 27.1 ± 5.5 24.7 ± 4.3 27.0 ± 5.5 24.9 ± 4.4 26.9 ± 5.5 
Multivitamin use (%) 31.6 27.4 34.0 25.1 32.2 25.9 
History of hypertension (%) 22.4 29.1 22.2 28.2 22.0 29.5 
History of high cholesterol (%) 26.4 27.3 28.1 26.0 28.0 25.6 
Family history of diabetes (%) 23.7 27.5 24.1 26.9 23.6 27.1 
Diet (adjusted for total energy)       
Total calorie (kcal/day) 1,333 2,236 1,458 2,127 1,569 1,989 
Carbohydrate (g/day) 248 200 248 199 239 206 
Total fat (g/day) 52.7 62.7 48.4 66.1 50.7 64.6 
Saturated fat (g/day) 18.0 21.4 16.0 23.0 16.9 22.4 
Monounsaturated fat (g/day) 19.4 23.7 17.4 25.3 18.5 24.6 
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day) 10.7 11.5 10.6 11.5 10.5 11.7 
Trans fatty acid (g/day) 2.12 2.43 1.72 2.74 1.80 2.69 
Cholesterol (mg/day) 173 267 186 259 199 254 
Proteins (g/day) 69.6 89.9 78.9 83.2 82.0 79.5 
Fiber (g/day) 21.2 17.4 22.7 16.2 21.8 16.6 
Magnesium (mg/day) 355 325 377 305 369 308 
Glycemic load* 187 150 185 151 178 157 
Quintile of intakeTotal meat
Red meat
Processed meat
Q1Q5Q1Q5Q1Q5
Median intake (servings/day) 0.63 2.27 0.13 1.42 0.56 
Age (years) 54.6 ± 7.5 53.5 ± 6.7 54.3 ± 7.2 53.5 ± 6.8 54.0 ± 7.0 54.0 ± 7.1 
Smoking (%)       
    Current 11.4 15.3 7.97 18.8 7.65 20.8 
    Never 51.3 51.5 51.5 50.3 53.6 47.2 
    Past 37.4 33.2 40.5 30.9 38.8 32.0 
Exercise (%)       
    Rarely/never 36.5 40.7 30.0 47.0 30.7 46.7 
    <1/week 17.2 22.5 15.8 22.2 16.2 22.3 
    1–3/week 32.2 29.2 36.0 25.1 36.1 25.1 
    ≥4/week 14.2 7.65 18.2 5.74 17.0 5.95 
Alcohol consumption (%)       
    Rarely never 49.2 45.9 46.5 48.2 45.2 46.3 
    1–3 drinks/month 12.8 12.4 13.3 12.2 13.4 12.3 
    1–6 drinks/week 28.7 31.3 30.9 29.3 31.8 30.2 
    ≥1 drink/day 9.29 10.4 9.33 10.3 9.67 11.2 
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)       
    Never 46.0 49.3 46.4 50.2 46.1 49.4 
    Past 10.7 10.8 10.3 10.9 9.60 11.5 
    Current 43.4 40.0 43.3 39.0 44.3 39.1 
Mean BMI (kg/m224.8 ± 4.3 27.1 ± 5.5 24.7 ± 4.3 27.0 ± 5.5 24.9 ± 4.4 26.9 ± 5.5 
Multivitamin use (%) 31.6 27.4 34.0 25.1 32.2 25.9 
History of hypertension (%) 22.4 29.1 22.2 28.2 22.0 29.5 
History of high cholesterol (%) 26.4 27.3 28.1 26.0 28.0 25.6 
Family history of diabetes (%) 23.7 27.5 24.1 26.9 23.6 27.1 
Diet (adjusted for total energy)       
Total calorie (kcal/day) 1,333 2,236 1,458 2,127 1,569 1,989 
Carbohydrate (g/day) 248 200 248 199 239 206 
Total fat (g/day) 52.7 62.7 48.4 66.1 50.7 64.6 
Saturated fat (g/day) 18.0 21.4 16.0 23.0 16.9 22.4 
Monounsaturated fat (g/day) 19.4 23.7 17.4 25.3 18.5 24.6 
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day) 10.7 11.5 10.6 11.5 10.5 11.7 
Trans fatty acid (g/day) 2.12 2.43 1.72 2.74 1.80 2.69 
Cholesterol (mg/day) 173 267 186 259 199 254 
Proteins (g/day) 69.6 89.9 78.9 83.2 82.0 79.5 
Fiber (g/day) 21.2 17.4 22.7 16.2 21.8 16.6 
Magnesium (mg/day) 355 325 377 305 369 308 
Glycemic load* 187 150 185 151 178 157 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. All covariate values are according to the quintiles of total red meat consumption. All the means of nutrients are energy adjusted.

*

Glycemic load was defined as an indicator of blood glucose induced by an individual’s total carbohydrate intake. Each unit of glycemic load represents the equivalent of 1 g of carbohydrate from white bread.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal