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Table 2—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to consumption of red meat and total processed meat in the WHS

Frequency of consumption
Quintiles of intake
<1 time/week1 time/week2–4 times/week≥5 times/weekP for trend1 (lowest)2345 (highest)P for trend
Red meat            
    Median intake, servings/day 0.03 0.20 0.42 1.06 — 0.13 0.40 0.57 0.86 1.42 — 
    Cases/person-years 69/22,694 110/30,284 502/128,806 877/145,092 — 225/64,742 229/63,204 299/69,244 322/64,146 483/65,541 — 
    Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.20 (0.89–1.62) 1.30 (1.01–1.68) 2.03 (1.58–2.60) <0.0001 1.00 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 1.29 (1.08–1.54) 1.53 (1.28–1.83) 2.24 (1.88–2.66) <0.0001 
    Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.15 (0.85–1.57) 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 1.29 (0.99–1.67) 0.01 1.00 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 1.07 (0.90–1.28) 1.09 (0.91–1.31) 1.28 (1.07–1.53) <0.001 
    Multivariate Model 2 1.00 1.16 (0.85–1.58) 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 1.25 (0.94–1.67) 0.07 1.00 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 1.07 (0.88–1.30) 1.08 (0.89–1.33) 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 0.005 
Total processed meat            
    Median intake, servings/day 0.14 0.43 0.92 — 0.07 0.13 0.21 0.56 — 
    Cases/person-years 555/150,891 457/97,859 395/60,827 136/14,119 — 309/86,704 246/64,187 172/41,203 384/72,400 432/59,202 — 
    Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.27 (1.12–1.44) 1.74 (1.52–1.98) 2.49 (2.05–3.03) <0.0001 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 1.17 (0.97–1.41) 1.48 (1.27–1.72) 1.98 (1.70–2.30) <0.0001 
    Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 1.20 (1.05–1.38) 1.43 (1.17–1.75) <0.001 1.00 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.23 (1.05–1.45) 0.001 
    Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.03 (0.91–1.18) 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 1.38 (1.11–1.71) 0.003 1.00 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 1.08 (0.91–1.27) 1.19 (1.00–1.42) 0.007 
Frequency of consumption
Quintiles of intake
<1 time/week1 time/week2–4 times/week≥5 times/weekP for trend1 (lowest)2345 (highest)P for trend
Red meat            
    Median intake, servings/day 0.03 0.20 0.42 1.06 — 0.13 0.40 0.57 0.86 1.42 — 
    Cases/person-years 69/22,694 110/30,284 502/128,806 877/145,092 — 225/64,742 229/63,204 299/69,244 322/64,146 483/65,541 — 
    Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.20 (0.89–1.62) 1.30 (1.01–1.68) 2.03 (1.58–2.60) <0.0001 1.00 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 1.29 (1.08–1.54) 1.53 (1.28–1.83) 2.24 (1.88–2.66) <0.0001 
    Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.15 (0.85–1.57) 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 1.29 (0.99–1.67) 0.01 1.00 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 1.07 (0.90–1.28) 1.09 (0.91–1.31) 1.28 (1.07–1.53) <0.001 
    Multivariate Model 2 1.00 1.16 (0.85–1.58) 1.09 (0.83–1.43) 1.25 (0.94–1.67) 0.07 1.00 0.90 (0.74–1.10) 1.07 (0.88–1.30) 1.08 (0.89–1.33) 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 0.005 
Total processed meat            
    Median intake, servings/day 0.14 0.43 0.92 — 0.07 0.13 0.21 0.56 — 
    Cases/person-years 555/150,891 457/97,859 395/60,827 136/14,119 — 309/86,704 246/64,187 172/41,203 384/72,400 432/59,202 — 
    Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.27 (1.12–1.44) 1.74 (1.52–1.98) 2.49 (2.05–3.03) <0.0001 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 1.17 (0.97–1.41) 1.48 (1.27–1.72) 1.98 (1.70–2.30) <0.0001 
    Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 1.20 (1.05–1.38) 1.43 (1.17–1.75) <0.001 1.00 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.23 (1.05–1.45) 0.001 
    Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.03 (0.91–1.18) 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 1.38 (1.11–1.71) 0.003 1.00 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 0.95 (0.78–1.15) 1.08 (0.91–1.27) 1.19 (1.00–1.42) 0.007 

Data are RR (95% CI).

*

Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking (current, past, and never), exercise (rarely/never, <1 time/week, 1–3 times/week, and ≥4 times/week), alcohol use (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, and ≥1 drink/day), and family history of diabetes (yes/no).

Multivariate model 2: model 1 with additional adjustment for dietary intakes of fiber intake (quintiles), glycemic load (quintiles), magnesium (quintiles), and total fat (quintiles).

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