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Table 3—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to subtypes of red meat and processed meat in the WHS

Frequency of consumption
P for trend
<1 time/week1 time/week≥2 times/week
Red meat     
    Beef or lamb as a main dish     
        Cases/person-years 199/52,840 482/106,678 858/163,127  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.19 (1.01–1.41) 1.35 (1.15–1.58) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 1.15 (0.98–1.35) 0.07 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 0.22 
    Pork as a main dish     
        Cases/person-years 391/91,050 620/135,719 544/99,043  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.05 (0.93–1.20) 1.23 (1.07–1.41) 0.002 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 1.10 (0.95–1.26) 0.16 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.36 
    Beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish     
        Cases/person-years 163/44,245 411/95,201 971/184,184  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.17 (0.98–1.41) 1.40 (1.18–1.66) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 1.15 (0.96–1.37) 0.09 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.21 
    Hamburgers     
    Cases/person-years 174/53,936 511/123,780 867/147,174  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.29 (1.09–1.53) 1.81 (1.54–2.14) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.10 (0.92–1.31) 1.18 (1.00–1.41) 0.04 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 0.14 
Processed meat     
    Bacon     
        Cases/person-years 690/173,840 497/96,981 364/54,876  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.27 (1.14–1.43) 1.59 (1.40–1.81) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.21 (1.06–1.39) 0.004 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.10 (0.97–1.24) 1.17 (1.02–1.35) 0.02 
    Hot dogs     
        Cases/person-years 811/202,195 522/95,147 215/27,736  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.35 (1.21–1.51) 1.84 (1.58–2.15) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 1.28 (1.09–1.50) 0.003 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 1.24 (1.05–1.45) 0.02 
    Other processed meats     
        Cases/person-years 580/144,224 494/108,859 480/72,486  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.13 (1.00–1.27) 1.60 (1.41–1.81) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 1.12 (0.99–1.28) 0.13 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 0.43 
Frequency of consumption
P for trend
<1 time/week1 time/week≥2 times/week
Red meat     
    Beef or lamb as a main dish     
        Cases/person-years 199/52,840 482/106,678 858/163,127  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.19 (1.01–1.41) 1.35 (1.15–1.58) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 1.15 (0.98–1.35) 0.07 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.07 (0.90–1.27) 1.12 (0.94–1.33) 0.22 
    Pork as a main dish     
        Cases/person-years 391/91,050 620/135,719 544/99,043  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.05 (0.93–1.20) 1.23 (1.07–1.41) 0.002 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 1.10 (0.95–1.26) 0.16 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.36 
    Beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish     
        Cases/person-years 163/44,245 411/95,201 971/184,184  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.17 (0.98–1.41) 1.40 (1.18–1.66) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 1.15 (0.96–1.37) 0.09 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 1.12 (0.93–1.34) 0.21 
    Hamburgers     
    Cases/person-years 174/53,936 511/123,780 867/147,174  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.29 (1.09–1.53) 1.81 (1.54–2.14) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.10 (0.92–1.31) 1.18 (1.00–1.41) 0.04 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.09 (0.91–1.30) 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 0.14 
Processed meat     
    Bacon     
        Cases/person-years 690/173,840 497/96,981 364/54,876  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.27 (1.14–1.43) 1.59 (1.40–1.81) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.12 (0.99–1.26) 1.21 (1.06–1.39) 0.004 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.10 (0.97–1.24) 1.17 (1.02–1.35) 0.02 
    Hot dogs     
        Cases/person-years 811/202,195 522/95,147 215/27,736  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.35 (1.21–1.51) 1.84 (1.58–2.15) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 1.08 (0.96–1.21) 1.28 (1.09–1.50) 0.003 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 1.24 (1.05–1.45) 0.02 
    Other processed meats     
        Cases/person-years 580/144,224 494/108,859 480/72,486  
        Age, energy adjusted 1.00 1.13 (1.00–1.27) 1.60 (1.41–1.81) <0.0001 
        Multivariate model 1* 1.00 0.91 (0.80–1.03) 1.12 (0.99–1.28) 0.13 
        Multivariate model 2 1.00 0.89 (0.78–1.01) 1.07 (0.93–1.23) 0.43 

Data are RR (95% CI);

*

Multivariate model 1: adjusted for age (continuous), BMI (continuous), total energy intake (quintiles), smoking (current, past, and never), exercise (rarely/never, <1 time/week, 1–3 times/week, and ≥4 times/week), alcohol use (rarely/never, 1–3 drinks/month, 1–6 drinks/week, and ≥1 drink/day), and family history of diabetes (yes/no).

Multivariate model 2: model 1 with additional adjustment for dietary intakes of fiber intake (quintiles), glycemic load (quintiles), magnesium (quintiles), and total fat (quintiles).

Other processed meats include sausage, salami, and bologna.

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