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Table 2—

Bivariate associations between CES-D–defined depressive symptoms and demographic and health characteristics

CES-D <9CES-D ≥9P value
Categorical characteristics    
    Ethnic group    
        White  40 (13.6) 0.080 
African American  32 (14.6)  
Native American  38 (21.0)  
    Sex    
Female  71 (20.7) 0.0005 
Male  39 (11.1)  
    Marital status    
Not married  67 (19.3) 0.013 
Married  43 (12.4)  
    Formal education (n = 695)    
Less than high school  95 (21.1) <0.0001 
High school  13 (9.0)  
At least some college  2 (2.0)  
    Poverty status (n = 666)    
On Medicaid  52 (22.1) 0.0019 
No Medicaid, household income <$25,000  43 (14.2)  
No Medicaid, household income >$25,000  11 (8.6)  
    Number in household    
 30 (14.1) 0.17 
 50 (14.8)  
≥3  30 (20.8)  
    Diabetes therapy    
No medication  17 (19.8) 0.54 
Oral agent only  65 (15.6)  
Insulin with or without oral agents  28 (14.6)  
    Number of prescription medications (n = 691)    
≤5  28 (8.7) <0.0001 
>5  81 (22.0)  
    Number of chronic conditions    
≤5  51 (10.7) <0.0001 
>5  59 (26.8)  
Continuous characteristics    
    Age (years) 74.1 ± 5.32 74.1 ± 5.87 0.96 
    Diabetes duration (years) 12.5 ± 10.99 12.4 ± 10.98 0.95 
    BMI (kg/m2) (n = 664) 29.6 ± 5.88 29.5 ± 5.94 0.85 
    HbA1c (%) (n = 691) 6.8 ± 1.31 6.8 ± 1.41 0.55 
    SF-12 physical component score (n = 664) 36.2 ± 11.59 29.5 ± 8.16 <0.0001 
CES-D <9CES-D ≥9P value
Categorical characteristics    
    Ethnic group    
        White  40 (13.6) 0.080 
African American  32 (14.6)  
Native American  38 (21.0)  
    Sex    
Female  71 (20.7) 0.0005 
Male  39 (11.1)  
    Marital status    
Not married  67 (19.3) 0.013 
Married  43 (12.4)  
    Formal education (n = 695)    
Less than high school  95 (21.1) <0.0001 
High school  13 (9.0)  
At least some college  2 (2.0)  
    Poverty status (n = 666)    
On Medicaid  52 (22.1) 0.0019 
No Medicaid, household income <$25,000  43 (14.2)  
No Medicaid, household income >$25,000  11 (8.6)  
    Number in household    
 30 (14.1) 0.17 
 50 (14.8)  
≥3  30 (20.8)  
    Diabetes therapy    
No medication  17 (19.8) 0.54 
Oral agent only  65 (15.6)  
Insulin with or without oral agents  28 (14.6)  
    Number of prescription medications (n = 691)    
≤5  28 (8.7) <0.0001 
>5  81 (22.0)  
    Number of chronic conditions    
≤5  51 (10.7) <0.0001 
>5  59 (26.8)  
Continuous characteristics    
    Age (years) 74.1 ± 5.32 74.1 ± 5.87 0.96 
    Diabetes duration (years) 12.5 ± 10.99 12.4 ± 10.98 0.95 
    BMI (kg/m2) (n = 664) 29.6 ± 5.88 29.5 ± 5.94 0.85 
    HbA1c (%) (n = 691) 6.8 ± 1.31 6.8 ± 1.41 0.55 
    SF-12 physical component score (n = 664) 36.2 ± 11.59 29.5 ± 8.16 <0.0001 

Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

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