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Table 3—

Multivariate associations between CES-D–defined depressive symptoms and demographic and health characteristics (n = 606)

VariablesOR (95% CI)P value
Ethnicity*  0.95 
    African American vs. white 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.99 
    Native American vs. white 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.79 
    African American vs. Native American 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 0.79 
Sex (female vs. male) 1.8 (1.0–3.1) 0.048 
Age (years) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.28 
Formal education  <0.0001 
    High school vs. less than high school 0.3 (0.1–0.6) 0.0007 
    At least some college vs. less than high school 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.0003 
    At least some college vs. high school 0.2 (0.0–1.1) 0.058 
Poverty status  0.73 
    No Medicaid, <$25,000 vs. on Medicaid 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 0.71 
    No Medicaid, ≥$25,000 vs. on Medicaid 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 0.43 
    No Medicaid, <$25,000 vs. no Medicaid, ≥$25,000 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 0.54 
Living arrangement  0.049 
    Living with others and unmarried vs. living alone 2.3 (1.2–4.3) 0.014 
    Living with others and married vs. living alone 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.24 
    Living with others: unmarried vs. married 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.21 
Diabetes duration (decades) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.90 
BMI (kg/m20.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.019 
HbA1c (%) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.92 
Diabetes therapy  0.35 
    Oral agent only vs. no medication 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.54 
    Insulin with or without oral agents vs. no medication 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.18 
    Oral agent only vs. insulin with or without oral agents 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 0.22 
    Number of prescription medications (>5 vs. ≤5) 2.3 (1.3–4.1) 0.0036 
Number of chronic conditions (>5 vs. ≤5) 2.4 (1.4–4.1) 0.0012 
PCS (÷10) 0.7 (0.6–1.0) 0.021 
VariablesOR (95% CI)P value
Ethnicity*  0.95 
    African American vs. white 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.99 
    Native American vs. white 0.9 (0.5–1.7) 0.79 
    African American vs. Native American 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 0.79 
Sex (female vs. male) 1.8 (1.0–3.1) 0.048 
Age (years) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.28 
Formal education  <0.0001 
    High school vs. less than high school 0.3 (0.1–0.6) 0.0007 
    At least some college vs. less than high school 0.1 (0.0–0.3) 0.0003 
    At least some college vs. high school 0.2 (0.0–1.1) 0.058 
Poverty status  0.73 
    No Medicaid, <$25,000 vs. on Medicaid 1.1 (0.6–2.0) 0.71 
    No Medicaid, ≥$25,000 vs. on Medicaid 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 0.43 
    No Medicaid, <$25,000 vs. no Medicaid, ≥$25,000 0.8 (0.3–1.8) 0.54 
Living arrangement  0.049 
    Living with others and unmarried vs. living alone 2.3 (1.2–4.3) 0.014 
    Living with others and married vs. living alone 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.24 
    Living with others: unmarried vs. married 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.21 
Diabetes duration (decades) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.90 
BMI (kg/m20.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.019 
HbA1c (%) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.92 
Diabetes therapy  0.35 
    Oral agent only vs. no medication 0.8 (0.4–1.7) 0.54 
    Insulin with or without oral agents vs. no medication 0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.18 
    Oral agent only vs. insulin with or without oral agents 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 0.22 
    Number of prescription medications (>5 vs. ≤5) 2.3 (1.3–4.1) 0.0036 
Number of chronic conditions (>5 vs. ≤5) 2.4 (1.4–4.1) 0.0012 
PCS (÷10) 0.7 (0.6–1.0) 0.021 
*

Ethnicity remains nonsignificant (P value = 0.47) after dropping formal education and poverty status as covariates.

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