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Table 1—

Characteristics of study participants by race (N = 686)

White (%)Black (%)Latino (%)Other (%)P value
n 448 122 70 46  
Age (years)     0.02 
    22–55 25 42 25 39  
    55–70 39 35 75 37  
    >71 36 22 24  
Male 76 38 33 67 <0.001 
Education     <0.001 
    Less than high school 22 21 70 25  
    High school 31 29 12 15  
    Some college 47 49 18 60  
Annual income     <0.001 
    <$10,000 16 20 47 10  
    $10,001–30,000 51 64 44 36  
    >$30,000 33 54  
Length of diabetes     0.05 
    ≤3 years 29 21 25 36  
    ≥4 years 71 79 75 64  
Hypoglycemic regimen     0.067 
    Oral medications only 70 57 57 70  
    Insulin ± oral medication 23 36 37 28  
    No medication  
Outpatient visits in past year 3.4 ± 2.3 5.6 ± 3.3 7.4 ± 4.4 3.3 ± 2.4 <0.001 
Last HbA1c checked (%) 7.3 ± 1.4 7.8 ± 2.2 8.5 ± 2.3 7.0 ± 1.2 <0.001 
Health system      
    VA 52 23 64 <0.001 
    AMC 48 13 26  
    Inner-city 64 86 10  
Strongly agreed that diabetes doctor answers questions fully 30% 36% 37% 30% 0.49 
Had biomedically accurate assessment of diabetes control 48% 52% 50% 57% 0.64 
Self-reported understanding of diabetes self-care* 3.54 ± 0.91 3.69 ± 0.91 3.20 ± 0.96 3.64 ± 0.98 <0.001 
Diabetes care self-efficacy* 70.6 ± 18.7 75.8 ± 17.9 71.5 ± 15.7 70.6 ± 20.6 0.06 
White (%)Black (%)Latino (%)Other (%)P value
n 448 122 70 46  
Age (years)     0.02 
    22–55 25 42 25 39  
    55–70 39 35 75 37  
    >71 36 22 24  
Male 76 38 33 67 <0.001 
Education     <0.001 
    Less than high school 22 21 70 25  
    High school 31 29 12 15  
    Some college 47 49 18 60  
Annual income     <0.001 
    <$10,000 16 20 47 10  
    $10,001–30,000 51 64 44 36  
    >$30,000 33 54  
Length of diabetes     0.05 
    ≤3 years 29 21 25 36  
    ≥4 years 71 79 75 64  
Hypoglycemic regimen     0.067 
    Oral medications only 70 57 57 70  
    Insulin ± oral medication 23 36 37 28  
    No medication  
Outpatient visits in past year 3.4 ± 2.3 5.6 ± 3.3 7.4 ± 4.4 3.3 ± 2.4 <0.001 
Last HbA1c checked (%) 7.3 ± 1.4 7.8 ± 2.2 8.5 ± 2.3 7.0 ± 1.2 <0.001 
Health system      
    VA 52 23 64 <0.001 
    AMC 48 13 26  
    Inner-city 64 86 10  
Strongly agreed that diabetes doctor answers questions fully 30% 36% 37% 30% 0.49 
Had biomedically accurate assessment of diabetes control 48% 52% 50% 57% 0.64 
Self-reported understanding of diabetes self-care* 3.54 ± 0.91 3.69 ± 0.91 3.20 ± 0.96 3.64 ± 0.98 <0.001 
Diabetes care self-efficacy* 70.6 ± 18.7 75.8 ± 17.9 71.5 ± 15.7 70.6 ± 20.6 0.06 

Data are frequencies (or percent) or means ± SD for respondents with available HbA1c data. Because of rounding, percentages may not equal 100.

*

Range of understanding scale was 1–5 and range of self-efficacy scale was 0–100; for both, higher scores are better.

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