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Table 2—

Plasma adiponectin concentration according to quintiles of carbohydrate intake,* glycemic index, and glycemic load

Quintiles
P for trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Carbohydrate 37.9 (163) 43.2 (153) 46.9 (156) 50.3 (147) 55.6 (138)  
    Range <40.6 40.6–45.0 45.1–48.5 48.5–52.6 ≥52.6  
    Model 1 16.1 15.5 15.0 15.6 15.6 0.231 
    Model 2 16.1 15.6 15.3 15.6 15.6 0.242 
    Model 3 15.9 15.3 15.3 15.7 15.9 0.253 
    Model 4 16.3 15.5 15.2 15.6 15.5 0.613 
Glycemic index 49.2 (151) 51.3 (152) 52.5 (157) 54.0 (149) 56.0 (148)  
    Range <50.4 50.4–51.9 51.9–53.3 53.3–54.9 ≥54.9  
    Model 1 15.9 16.3 15.7 15.5 14.5 0.046 
    Model 2 16.1 16.7 15.7 15.1 14.4 0.015 
    Model 3 16.4 16.9 15.7 14.9 14.3 0.005 
    Model 4 16.2 16.7 15.8 15.0 14.5 0.028 
Glycemic load 97 (160) 112 (154) 123 (156) 133 (149) 149 (138)  
    Range <105 105–118 118–128 129–140 ≥140  
    Model 1 16.1 15.2 15.9 15.2 15.4 0.144 
    Model 2 16.2 15.3 16.4 15.2 14.9 0.067 
    Model 3 17.2 15.5 16.2 15.0 14.1 0.004 
    Model 4 17.2 15.5 16.1 15.1 14.2 0.006 
Quintiles
P for trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Carbohydrate 37.9 (163) 43.2 (153) 46.9 (156) 50.3 (147) 55.6 (138)  
    Range <40.6 40.6–45.0 45.1–48.5 48.5–52.6 ≥52.6  
    Model 1 16.1 15.5 15.0 15.6 15.6 0.231 
    Model 2 16.1 15.6 15.3 15.6 15.6 0.242 
    Model 3 15.9 15.3 15.3 15.7 15.9 0.253 
    Model 4 16.3 15.5 15.2 15.6 15.5 0.613 
Glycemic index 49.2 (151) 51.3 (152) 52.5 (157) 54.0 (149) 56.0 (148)  
    Range <50.4 50.4–51.9 51.9–53.3 53.3–54.9 ≥54.9  
    Model 1 15.9 16.3 15.7 15.5 14.5 0.046 
    Model 2 16.1 16.7 15.7 15.1 14.4 0.015 
    Model 3 16.4 16.9 15.7 14.9 14.3 0.005 
    Model 4 16.2 16.7 15.8 15.0 14.5 0.028 
Glycemic load 97 (160) 112 (154) 123 (156) 133 (149) 149 (138)  
    Range <105 105–118 118–128 129–140 ≥140  
    Model 1 16.1 15.2 15.9 15.2 15.4 0.144 
    Model 2 16.2 15.3 16.4 15.2 14.9 0.067 
    Model 3 17.2 15.5 16.2 15.0 14.1 0.004 
    Model 4 17.2 15.5 16.1 15.1 14.2 0.006 

Data are median (n). Model 1: adjusted for age; model 2: adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, aspirin use, HbA1c, and history of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia; model 3: in addition to the variables adjusted in model 2, further adjusted for the dietary factors (total energy intake, glycemic load, and fibers) that were not examined as the primary independent variable; model 4: in addition to variables adjusted in model 3, further adjusted for magnesium.

*

Presented as percent of total energy.

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