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Table 1—

Characteristics and metabolic parameters of the study subjects

Obese subjectsLean subjectsP value*
n 24 24 — 
Sex (male/female) 9/15 9/15 — 
Age (years) 12.52 ± 0.49; 12.00 (9.94–16.23) 13.35 ± 0.43; 13.25 (10.04–15.96) 0.215 
Race    
    Caucasian 11 21 0.005 
    African American 11  
    Other  
Pubertal stage   — 
    Early puberty (Tanner 1 and 2) — 
    Midpuberty (Tanner 3 and 4) — 
    Late puberty (Tanner 5) 11 11 — 
BMI (kg/m236.2 ± 2.1; 34.85 (24.84–47.07) 18.7 ± 0.6; 18.07 (14.79–22.88) <0.001 
BMI z score 2.36 ± 0.09; 2.46 (1.55–2.82) −0.28 ± 0.19; −0.31 (−1.36 to 0.79) <0.001 
Percentage body fat 44.1 ± 1.5; 44.67 (36.39–52.68) 22.9 ± 1.1; 23.56 (15.01–29.00) <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.16 ± 0.05; 5.13 (4.55–5.60) 5.16 ± 0.10; 5.16 (4.87–5.45) 0.984 
HbA1c (%) 5.24 ± 0.11; 5.20 (4.69–5.62) 5.13 ± 0.07; 5.10 (4.69–5.61) 0.412 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 178.8 ± 19.8; 186.92 (50.18–268.66) 63.2 ± 6.6; 57.47 (25.84–110.2) <0.001 
HOMA§ 6.01 ± 0.76; 5.70 (1.62–9.94) 2.10 ± 0.22; 1.86 (0.77–3.54) <0.001 
QUICKI§ 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.30 (0.28–0.36) 0.35 ± 0.01; 0.35 (0.32–0.40) <0.001 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.34 ± 0.16; 4.22 (3.27–5.60) 3.76 ± 0.14; 3.63 (2.96–4.88) 0.009 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.12 ± 0.10; 1.07 (0.60–1.83) 0.84 ± 0.09; 0.77 (0.48–1.48) 0.039 
LDL (mmol/l) 2.81 ± 0.14; 2.70 (2.03–3.79) 2.10 ± 0.12; 2.05 (1.42–3.10) <0.001 
HDL (mmol/l) 1.10 ± 0.04; 1.06 (0.82–1.35) 1.35 ± 0.07; 1.35 (0.96–1.73) 0.002 
Serum magnesium (mmol/l) 0.748 ± 0.015; 0.740 (0.653–0.863) 0.801 ± 0.012; 0.822 (0.699–0.863) 0.009 
Urinary magnesium-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg) 0.077 ± 0.007; 0.067 (0.042–0.112) 0.081 ± 0.010; 0.070 (0.040–0.110) 0.762 
Obese subjectsLean subjectsP value*
n 24 24 — 
Sex (male/female) 9/15 9/15 — 
Age (years) 12.52 ± 0.49; 12.00 (9.94–16.23) 13.35 ± 0.43; 13.25 (10.04–15.96) 0.215 
Race    
    Caucasian 11 21 0.005 
    African American 11  
    Other  
Pubertal stage   — 
    Early puberty (Tanner 1 and 2) — 
    Midpuberty (Tanner 3 and 4) — 
    Late puberty (Tanner 5) 11 11 — 
BMI (kg/m236.2 ± 2.1; 34.85 (24.84–47.07) 18.7 ± 0.6; 18.07 (14.79–22.88) <0.001 
BMI z score 2.36 ± 0.09; 2.46 (1.55–2.82) −0.28 ± 0.19; −0.31 (−1.36 to 0.79) <0.001 
Percentage body fat 44.1 ± 1.5; 44.67 (36.39–52.68) 22.9 ± 1.1; 23.56 (15.01–29.00) <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.16 ± 0.05; 5.13 (4.55–5.60) 5.16 ± 0.10; 5.16 (4.87–5.45) 0.984 
HbA1c (%) 5.24 ± 0.11; 5.20 (4.69–5.62) 5.13 ± 0.07; 5.10 (4.69–5.61) 0.412 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 178.8 ± 19.8; 186.92 (50.18–268.66) 63.2 ± 6.6; 57.47 (25.84–110.2) <0.001 
HOMA§ 6.01 ± 0.76; 5.70 (1.62–9.94) 2.10 ± 0.22; 1.86 (0.77–3.54) <0.001 
QUICKI§ 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.30 (0.28–0.36) 0.35 ± 0.01; 0.35 (0.32–0.40) <0.001 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.34 ± 0.16; 4.22 (3.27–5.60) 3.76 ± 0.14; 3.63 (2.96–4.88) 0.009 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.12 ± 0.10; 1.07 (0.60–1.83) 0.84 ± 0.09; 0.77 (0.48–1.48) 0.039 
LDL (mmol/l) 2.81 ± 0.14; 2.70 (2.03–3.79) 2.10 ± 0.12; 2.05 (1.42–3.10) <0.001 
HDL (mmol/l) 1.10 ± 0.04; 1.06 (0.82–1.35) 1.35 ± 0.07; 1.35 (0.96–1.73) 0.002 
Serum magnesium (mmol/l) 0.748 ± 0.015; 0.740 (0.653–0.863) 0.801 ± 0.012; 0.822 (0.699–0.863) 0.009 
Urinary magnesium-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg) 0.077 ± 0.007; 0.067 (0.042–0.112) 0.081 ± 0.010; 0.070 (0.040–0.110) 0.762 

Data are means ± SE; median (10th to 90th percentile).

*

By ANOVA for continuous variables and by exact test for categorical variables.

Subject matching criterion by design.

Tanner stage of breast development for girls and genital development for boys.

§

Formulas used for calculation of HOMA and QUICKI are shown in research design and methods.

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