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Table 1—

Age-standardized characteristics of the study population by level of A1C and diabetes status

Quartile of A1C among nondiabetic subjects (range, %)
Level of A1C among diabetic subjects (%)
P
Quartile 1 (<5.3)Quartile 2 (5.3–5.4)Quartile 3 (5.5–5.6)Quartile 4 (5.7–6.0)(<7)(≥7)Nondiabetic patientsFull population*
n 1,210 933 808 700 456 419 — — 
Age (years) 53.0 ± 0.3 57.2 ± 0.5 57.7 ± 0.5 61.0 ± 0.6 61.6 ± 0.7 59.8 ± 0.6 <0.001 <0.001 
Female sex (%) 56.9 ± 1.7 50.4 ± 2.2 48.1 ± 1.9 53.9 ± 2.7 45.5 ± 3.6 41.9 ± 3.0 <0.001 0.021 
Non-Hispanic black (%) 4.8 ± 0.8 7.3 ± 1.2 8.9 ± 1.1 12.2 ± 2.0 15.4 ± 3.5 17.0 ± 3.0 <0.001 <0.001 
Mexican American (%) 3.3 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 1.0 10.3 ± 2.3 0.004 <0.001 
Current smoking (%) 16.8 ± 1.5 21.3 ± 1.7 21.8 ± 1.8 26.4 ± 2.2 22.6 ± 2.8 21.6 ± 2.8 <0.001 0.003 
Former smoking (%) 35.7 ± 1.7 32.8 ± 2.0 30.4 ± 2.1 29.2 ± 2.2 38.4 ± 3.2 30.6 ± 3.8 0.009 0.110 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126.5 ± 0.5 127.8 ± 0.7 128.2 ± 0.6 132.2 ± 0.9 131.2 ± 1.4 132.3 ± 1.9 <0.001 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93.0 ± 0.4 96.6 ± 0.5 99.2 ± 0.7 102.6 ± 0.8 106.6 ± 1.3 106.6 ± 1.1 <0.001 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 209.7 ± 1.6 213.0 ± 1.8 214.1 ± 1.9 220.3 ± 2.8 208.2 ± 3.8 218.1 ± 7.0 0.006 0.087 
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 0.36 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.49 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.04 0.74 ± 0.07 <0.001 <0.001 
Chronic kidney disease (%) 9.4 ± 1.4 11.1 ± 1.5 11.5 ± 1.3 10.3 ± 1.6 11.8 ± 1.9 10.9 ± 1.5 0.508 0.274 
ABI 1.12 ± 0.005 1.11 ± 0.005 1.10 ± 0.005 1.09 ± 0.007 1.09 ± 0.008 1.09 ± 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 
Quartile of A1C among nondiabetic subjects (range, %)
Level of A1C among diabetic subjects (%)
P
Quartile 1 (<5.3)Quartile 2 (5.3–5.4)Quartile 3 (5.5–5.6)Quartile 4 (5.7–6.0)(<7)(≥7)Nondiabetic patientsFull population*
n 1,210 933 808 700 456 419 — — 
Age (years) 53.0 ± 0.3 57.2 ± 0.5 57.7 ± 0.5 61.0 ± 0.6 61.6 ± 0.7 59.8 ± 0.6 <0.001 <0.001 
Female sex (%) 56.9 ± 1.7 50.4 ± 2.2 48.1 ± 1.9 53.9 ± 2.7 45.5 ± 3.6 41.9 ± 3.0 <0.001 0.021 
Non-Hispanic black (%) 4.8 ± 0.8 7.3 ± 1.2 8.9 ± 1.1 12.2 ± 2.0 15.4 ± 3.5 17.0 ± 3.0 <0.001 <0.001 
Mexican American (%) 3.3 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 1.0 10.3 ± 2.3 0.004 <0.001 
Current smoking (%) 16.8 ± 1.5 21.3 ± 1.7 21.8 ± 1.8 26.4 ± 2.2 22.6 ± 2.8 21.6 ± 2.8 <0.001 0.003 
Former smoking (%) 35.7 ± 1.7 32.8 ± 2.0 30.4 ± 2.1 29.2 ± 2.2 38.4 ± 3.2 30.6 ± 3.8 0.009 0.110 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126.5 ± 0.5 127.8 ± 0.7 128.2 ± 0.6 132.2 ± 0.9 131.2 ± 1.4 132.3 ± 1.9 <0.001 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm) 93.0 ± 0.4 96.6 ± 0.5 99.2 ± 0.7 102.6 ± 0.8 106.6 ± 1.3 106.6 ± 1.1 <0.001 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 209.7 ± 1.6 213.0 ± 1.8 214.1 ± 1.9 220.3 ± 2.8 208.2 ± 3.8 218.1 ± 7.0 0.006 0.087 
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 0.36 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.49 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.04 0.74 ± 0.07 <0.001 <0.001 
Chronic kidney disease (%) 9.4 ± 1.4 11.1 ± 1.5 11.5 ± 1.3 10.3 ± 1.6 11.8 ± 1.9 10.9 ± 1.5 0.508 0.274 
ABI 1.12 ± 0.005 1.11 ± 0.005 1.10 ± 0.005 1.09 ± 0.007 1.09 ± 0.008 1.09 ± 0.006 <0.001 <0.001 

Data are means ± SE.

*

P for the full population were calculated across all six A1C and diabetic groups ordered from lowest to highest as follows: no diabetes and lowest to highest quartile of A1C, diabetes and A1C <7%, and diabetes and A1C ≥7%.

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