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Table 1—

Risk of PCA in diabetic enrollees* by QTI quartile

QTI (%)QTc (ms)n (%)
Adjustment (OR [95% CI])
CasesControl subjectsAge and raceClinicalECGAutonomic
≤99 391 ± 2 12 (15) 54 (25) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 
99–103 418 ± 1 10 (13) 53 (25) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.9 (0.3–2.7) 1.0 (0.3–2.9) 0.9 (0.3–2.7) 
103–107 436 ± 1 14 (18) 47 (22) 1.1 (0.5–2.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.6) 1.2 (0.4–3.3) 1.2 (0.4–3.4) 
>107 476 ± 3 43 (54) 60 (28) 3.5 (1.6–7.6) 3.3 (1.3–8.5) 2.8 (1.0–7.9) 2.8 (1.0–7.6) 
QTI (%)QTc (ms)n (%)
Adjustment (OR [95% CI])
CasesControl subjectsAge and raceClinicalECGAutonomic
≤99 391 ± 2 12 (15) 54 (25) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 
99–103 418 ± 1 10 (13) 53 (25) 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.9 (0.3–2.7) 1.0 (0.3–2.9) 0.9 (0.3–2.7) 
103–107 436 ± 1 14 (18) 47 (22) 1.1 (0.5–2.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.6) 1.2 (0.4–3.3) 1.2 (0.4–3.4) 
>107 476 ± 3 43 (54) 60 (28) 3.5 (1.6–7.6) 3.3 (1.3–8.5) 2.8 (1.0–7.9) 2.8 (1.0–7.6) 

Data are %, means ± SD, or OR (95% CI).

*

Excludes enrollees with physician-diagnosed heart disease (angina, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft, or treatment with digoxin or nitrates before their index date).

Defined by the 25th-75th percentiles in control subjects. All models adjusted for sampling design. Specific models also adjusted for age (years), race (age and race), and in addition, current smoking, hypertension, diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), BMI (kg/m2), diabetes type, diabetes duration (years), retinopathy, metabolic complications (hospitalization for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hyperosmolar coma, or ketoacidosis), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, glucose (mg/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), dipstick protein ≥ trace, and prescriptions for oral hypoglycemics, insulin, and ACE inhibitors (clinical). The model adjusting for ECG characteristics (ECG) also included the T-wave negativity score, ST-segment depression score, and Q-wave score, whereas the model adjusting for autonomic characteristics (autonomic) also included history of symptomatic dysautonomia (orthostatic hypotension, syncope, gastroparesis, diabetic diarrhea, or atonic bladder), prescriptions for β-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants, heart rate (bpm), and RR variation (ms). All continuous variables were centered on their means. QTI = (QT ÷ QTpredicted) × 100, where QTpredicted = 656 ÷ (1 + 0.01 × heart rate).

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