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Table 1—

Respondent characteristics for providers

Physicians
Nurses
nMeans ± SD or %nMeans ± SD or %
Sex 2,681  1,109  
    Men 1,944 72.5 54 4.9 
    Women 737 27.5 1,055 95.1 
Age 2,676 46.16 ± 9.78 1,092 41.00 ± 8.60 
Years in practice 2,582 16.05 ± 9.57 1,107 10.91 ± 7.43 
Professional role     
    Specialist* 2,681 22.9 1,109 53.1 
    Opinion leader 2,680 0.22 ± 0.28 1,109 0.26 ± 0.26 
Percent with type 2 diabetes 2,681 67.12 ± 17.77 1,109 62.94 ± 20.31 
Practice location 2,669  1,109  
    Rural 388 14.5 189 17.1 
    Suburban 422 15.7 156 14.1 
    Small urban 485 18.1 180 16.3 
    Large urban 1,374 51.2 582 52.6 
Patient adherence to recommendations§     
    Medication 2,655 3.44 ± 0.56 1,066 3.60 ± 0.47 
    Appointments 2,540 3.43 ± 0.57 1,033 3.43 ± 0.59 
    SMBG 2,607 3.01 ± 0.71 1,068 3.10 ± 0.68 
    Diet 2,651 2.83 ± 0.59 1,084 2.92 ± 0.57 
    Exercise 2,650 2.65 ± 0.65 1,076 2.64 ± 0.65 
Patient psychological problems 2,612 23.94 ± 16.74 1,040 30.97 ± 27.55 
Patient attitudes toward insulin     
    Worry 2,670 60.17 ± 30.56 1,092 62.40 ± 30.32 
    Self-blame 2,670 36.04 ± 29.53 1,077 38.90 ± 32.05 
Attitudes toward insulin#     
    Efficacy 2,566 3.60 ± 1.63 1,011 3.67 ± 1.60 
    Cost a barrier 2,649 2.80 ± 1.67 1,063 2.99 ± 1.69 
Delay oral medication** 2,654 3.16 ± 1.73 1,048 3.45 ± 1.75 
Delay insulin†† 2,651 3.76 ± 1.72 1,057 3.66 ± 1.80 
Physicians
Nurses
nMeans ± SD or %nMeans ± SD or %
Sex 2,681  1,109  
    Men 1,944 72.5 54 4.9 
    Women 737 27.5 1,055 95.1 
Age 2,676 46.16 ± 9.78 1,092 41.00 ± 8.60 
Years in practice 2,582 16.05 ± 9.57 1,107 10.91 ± 7.43 
Professional role     
    Specialist* 2,681 22.9 1,109 53.1 
    Opinion leader 2,680 0.22 ± 0.28 1,109 0.26 ± 0.26 
Percent with type 2 diabetes 2,681 67.12 ± 17.77 1,109 62.94 ± 20.31 
Practice location 2,669  1,109  
    Rural 388 14.5 189 17.1 
    Suburban 422 15.7 156 14.1 
    Small urban 485 18.1 180 16.3 
    Large urban 1,374 51.2 582 52.6 
Patient adherence to recommendations§     
    Medication 2,655 3.44 ± 0.56 1,066 3.60 ± 0.47 
    Appointments 2,540 3.43 ± 0.57 1,033 3.43 ± 0.59 
    SMBG 2,607 3.01 ± 0.71 1,068 3.10 ± 0.68 
    Diet 2,651 2.83 ± 0.59 1,084 2.92 ± 0.57 
    Exercise 2,650 2.65 ± 0.65 1,076 2.64 ± 0.65 
Patient psychological problems 2,612 23.94 ± 16.74 1,040 30.97 ± 27.55 
Patient attitudes toward insulin     
    Worry 2,670 60.17 ± 30.56 1,092 62.40 ± 30.32 
    Self-blame 2,670 36.04 ± 29.53 1,077 38.90 ± 32.05 
Attitudes toward insulin#     
    Efficacy 2,566 3.60 ± 1.63 1,011 3.67 ± 1.60 
    Cost a barrier 2,649 2.80 ± 1.67 1,063 2.99 ± 1.69 
Delay oral medication** 2,654 3.16 ± 1.73 1,048 3.45 ± 1.75 
Delay insulin†† 2,651 3.76 ± 1.72 1,057 3.66 ± 1.80 
*

For India, approximately half of the physicians (rather than the quota of 20%) were classified as diabetes specialists because those who treated >50 diabetes patients a month, initiated insulin, and accepted diabetes referrals from other physicians were classified as specialists in India.

Six items indicating how often the respondent spoke at diabetes meetings or wrote for audiences of patients or providers (no or seldom = 0, sometimes or often = 1; measure = mean of item scores [α reliability = 0.72 for physicians, 0.66 for nurses]).

Percent of diabetic patients treated by provider who have type 2 diabetes.

§

Ratings of how well provider’s typical type 2 diabetic patient adhered to treatment recommendations (never = 1 to completely = 4).

Percentage of type 2 diabetic patients suffering from stress, anxiety, depression, denial, and burnout (0–100; measure = mean of item scores [α reliability = 0.82 for physicians and nurses]).

Percentage of type 2 diabetic patients who would worry about starting insulin therapy or think that starting insulin means not having followed treatment recommendations properly (none or few = 0, less than half = 33.3, more than half = 66.7, most or all = 100).

#

Earlier introduction of insulin would reduce long-term costs of diabetes care; cost of insulin therapy is a barrier to effective management (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).

**

Prefer to delay initiation of oral hypoglycemic therapy until it is absolutely necessary (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).

††

Prefer to delay initiation of insulin therapy until it is absolutely necessary (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 6).

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