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Table 2—

Respondent characteristics for patients

nMeans ± SD or %
Sex 2,056  
    Men 969 47.0% 
    Women 1,087 52.7% 
Age (years) 2,060 59.16 ± 11.88 
Age education completed 1,983  
    ≤14 407 19.7% 
    15–19 985 47.8% 
    ≥20 591 28.7% 
Residential location 2,055  
    Rural 409 19.9% 
    Suburban 419 20.3% 
    Urban 377 18.3% 
    Large urban 850 41.2% 
Duration of diabetes (years) 2,058 8.25 ± 7.69 
Complications 2,061 1.34 ± 0.79 
Adherence to recommendations*   
    Medication 1,825 3.32 ± 1.15 
    Appointments 1,860 3.42 ± 0.96 
    SMBG 1,713 3.12 ± 1.12 
    Diet 2,012 3.08 ± 1.12 
    Exercise 1,962 2.96 ± 0.99 
Perceived control 2,048 2.54 ± 1.16 
Diabetes distress 2,061 1.94 ± 0.70 
Relationship with provider§ 2,055 3.30 ± 0.67 
Attitudes toward insulin initiation   
    Efficacy 1,610 1.95 ± 1.01 
    Self-blame 1,818 2.54 ± 1.16 
nMeans ± SD or %
Sex 2,056  
    Men 969 47.0% 
    Women 1,087 52.7% 
Age (years) 2,060 59.16 ± 11.88 
Age education completed 1,983  
    ≤14 407 19.7% 
    15–19 985 47.8% 
    ≥20 591 28.7% 
Residential location 2,055  
    Rural 409 19.9% 
    Suburban 419 20.3% 
    Urban 377 18.3% 
    Large urban 850 41.2% 
Duration of diabetes (years) 2,058 8.25 ± 7.69 
Complications 2,061 1.34 ± 0.79 
Adherence to recommendations*   
    Medication 1,825 3.32 ± 1.15 
    Appointments 1,860 3.42 ± 0.96 
    SMBG 1,713 3.12 ± 1.12 
    Diet 2,012 3.08 ± 1.12 
    Exercise 1,962 2.96 ± 0.99 
Perceived control 2,048 2.54 ± 1.16 
Diabetes distress 2,061 1.94 ± 0.70 
Relationship with provider§ 2,055 3.30 ± 0.67 
Attitudes toward insulin initiation   
    Efficacy 1,610 1.95 ± 1.01 
    Self-blame 1,818 2.54 ± 1.16 
*

Success following treatment recommendations (never = 1 to completely = 4).

Extent diabetes is in control (not at all = 1 to to a great extent = 4).

Four items: stressed because of diabetes, constant fear diabetes is getting worse, coping getting more difficult, and burned out by diabetes (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4; measure = mean of all items [α reliability = 0.68]).

§

Three items: fully involved in treatment decisions, doctor spends enough time with me, and good relationship with diabetes care providers (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4; measure = mean of all items [α reliability = 0.65]).

Taking insulin will help me manage diabetes better; starting insulin means not having followed treatment recommendations properly (fully disagree = 1 to fully agree = 4).

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