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Table 4—

Regression analysis of patient attitudes about initiating insulin treatment

VariableInsulin efficacy
Self-blame
Unstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficientUnstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficient
Australia −0.113* −0.035 −0.421 −0.112 
France 0.064 0.016 0.110 0.024 
Germany 0.418 0.103 −0.477 −0.102 
India 0.276 0.093 −0.443 −0.125 
Japan 0.361 0.120 0.186§ 0.055 
Netherlands 0.018 0.005 −0.560 −0.123 
Poland 0.019 0.005 −0.243§ −0.052 
Scandinavia 0.248 0.065 −0.185 −0.043 
Spain 0.605 0.159 −0.091 −0.022 
U.K. 0.105 0.029 0.102 0.026 
Population density 0.018 0.021 −0.062 −0.063 
Women −0.020 −0.010 −0.028 −0.012 
Age −0.006 −0.068 −0.003* −0.034 
Duration of diabetes −0.002 −0.016 −0.010 −0.066 
Complications 0.049* 0.040 0.008 0.004 
Relationship with provider −0.080 −0.053 NS NS 
Perceived control −0.154 −0.105 NS NS 
Exercise adherence NS NS −0.076 −0.063 
SMBG adherence 0.055 0.056 NS NS 
Diabetes distress 0.264 0.186 0.281 0.171 
Model R2  0.138  0.092 
VariableInsulin efficacy
Self-blame
Unstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficientUnstandardized coefficientStandardized coefficient
Australia −0.113* −0.035 −0.421 −0.112 
France 0.064 0.016 0.110 0.024 
Germany 0.418 0.103 −0.477 −0.102 
India 0.276 0.093 −0.443 −0.125 
Japan 0.361 0.120 0.186§ 0.055 
Netherlands 0.018 0.005 −0.560 −0.123 
Poland 0.019 0.005 −0.243§ −0.052 
Scandinavia 0.248 0.065 −0.185 −0.043 
Spain 0.605 0.159 −0.091 −0.022 
U.K. 0.105 0.029 0.102 0.026 
Population density 0.018 0.021 −0.062 −0.063 
Women −0.020 −0.010 −0.028 −0.012 
Age −0.006 −0.068 −0.003* −0.034 
Duration of diabetes −0.002 −0.016 −0.010 −0.066 
Complications 0.049* 0.040 0.008 0.004 
Relationship with provider −0.080 −0.053 NS NS 
Perceived control −0.154 −0.105 NS NS 
Exercise adherence NS NS −0.076 −0.063 
SMBG adherence 0.055 0.056 NS NS 
Diabetes distress 0.264 0.186 0.281 0.171 
Model R2  0.138  0.092 

Regression coefficients not shown for education, which was not significantly related to insulin attitudes. The U.S. is the reference category for countries; country coefficients are interpreted as differences from the U.S. Mean substitution used for missing values.

*

P < 0.05 at entry;

P < 0.001;

P < 0.01;

§

P < 0.10;

P < 0.05. NS, not significant.

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