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Table 1—

Insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide secretion by glucose tolerance status

CharacteristicNGTIGTGDMP*
n 93 39 48  
Age (years) 33.2 ± 4.5 32.8 ± 4.7 34.0 ± 4.3 0.3980 
Weeks’ gestation 29.2 ± 2.7 29.7 ± 1.9 29.1 ± 2.2 0.4268 
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m223.9 ± 4.5 24.1 ± 4.2 24.7 ± 5.1 0.5977 
Insulin (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 58 (40–77) 63 (47–81) 74 (54–104) 0.0036 
    AUC 1,320 (925–1,837) 1,561 (1,091–1,920) 1,709 (1,267–2,538) 0.0046 
Proinsulin (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 17.7 (9.3–29.4) 15.2 (7.9–22.9) 17.2 (9.1–27.3) 0.5286 
    AUC 70.5 (51.7–91.5) 66 (39.6–83.4) 57.7 (44.9–102.3) 0.6586 
C-peptide (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 742 ± 288 758 ± 258 863 ± 330 0.0654 
    AUC 7,076 (5,571–9,611) 7,928 (6,071–9,200) 8,717 (6,877–9,748) 0.1156 
C-peptide–to–insulin ratio     
    Fasting 12.3 (10.5–15.1) 12.3 (9.5–14.9) 11.2 (8.9–13.0) 0.0623 
    AUC 21.1 (17.1–24.9) 19.6 (16.4–24.9) 17.3 (14.8–21.2) 0.0211 
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio     
    Fasting 0.277 (0.16–0.60) 0.197 (0.13–0.43) 0.221 (0.11–0.50) 0.1317 
    AUC 0.292 (0.18–0.48) 0.230 (0.13–0.36) 0.224 (0.11–0.36) 0.0155 
Proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio     
    Fasting 0.024 (0.01–0.04) 0.022 (0.01–0.04) 0.019 (0.01–0.03) 0.4414 
    AUC 0.039 (0.02–0.05) 0.035 (0.02–0.05) 0.028 (0.02–0.05) 0.3465 
CharacteristicNGTIGTGDMP*
n 93 39 48  
Age (years) 33.2 ± 4.5 32.8 ± 4.7 34.0 ± 4.3 0.3980 
Weeks’ gestation 29.2 ± 2.7 29.7 ± 1.9 29.1 ± 2.2 0.4268 
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m223.9 ± 4.5 24.1 ± 4.2 24.7 ± 5.1 0.5977 
Insulin (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 58 (40–77) 63 (47–81) 74 (54–104) 0.0036 
    AUC 1,320 (925–1,837) 1,561 (1,091–1,920) 1,709 (1,267–2,538) 0.0046 
Proinsulin (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 17.7 (9.3–29.4) 15.2 (7.9–22.9) 17.2 (9.1–27.3) 0.5286 
    AUC 70.5 (51.7–91.5) 66 (39.6–83.4) 57.7 (44.9–102.3) 0.6586 
C-peptide (pmol/l)     
    Fasting 742 ± 288 758 ± 258 863 ± 330 0.0654 
    AUC 7,076 (5,571–9,611) 7,928 (6,071–9,200) 8,717 (6,877–9,748) 0.1156 
C-peptide–to–insulin ratio     
    Fasting 12.3 (10.5–15.1) 12.3 (9.5–14.9) 11.2 (8.9–13.0) 0.0623 
    AUC 21.1 (17.1–24.9) 19.6 (16.4–24.9) 17.3 (14.8–21.2) 0.0211 
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio     
    Fasting 0.277 (0.16–0.60) 0.197 (0.13–0.43) 0.221 (0.11–0.50) 0.1317 
    AUC 0.292 (0.18–0.48) 0.230 (0.13–0.36) 0.224 (0.11–0.36) 0.0155 
Proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio     
    Fasting 0.024 (0.01–0.04) 0.022 (0.01–0.04) 0.019 (0.01–0.03) 0.4414 
    AUC 0.039 (0.02–0.05) 0.035 (0.02–0.05) 0.028 (0.02–0.05) 0.3465 

Data are means ± SD for age, weeks’ gestation, prepregnancy BMI, and fasting C-peptide. All other values are medians (interquartile range).

*

P values refer to overall differences across groups as derived from ANOVA. P values in bold are <0.05.

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