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Table 2—

Metabolic characteristics and diabetic complications according to deprivation as defined by the EPICES score

Deprivation
P
Less deprived
More deprived
EPICES ≤38.5EPICES >38.5
Age (years) 57.5 ± 13.5 61.3 ± 12.9 0.121 
Male sex (%) 58.7 43.3 0.088 
One-day hospitalization (%) 71.4 45.0 0.003* 
Diabetes history (years) 10.3 ± 9.2 11.1 ± 8.1 0.198 
BMI (kg/m227.9 ± 5.7 29.3 ± 5.4 0.175 
Obesity (%) 29.5 40.4 0.216 
A1C (%) 8.83 ± 2.36 10.57 ± 2.64 <0.001 
A1C class (%)   0.007 
    5.0–6.5 13.8 5.4  
    6.6–8.0 29.3 12.5  
    >8.0 56.9 82.1  
High A1C (%) 56.9 82.1 0.003 
Glucose (g/l) 1.41 ± 0.53 1.71 ± 0.68 0.009 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.22 ± 1.00 5.09 ± 1.16 0.495 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.37 ± 0.54 1.28 ± 0.53 0.370 
Triglycerides (g/l) 1.42 ± 0.74 1.72 ± 1.20 0.098 
Hypertriglyceridemia (%) 14.3 28.8 0.050 
Hb (g/l) 13.5 ± 1.5 12.8 ± 1.8 0.023 
Anemia (%) 19.0 35.0 0.046 
Creatinemia (μmol/l) 83.3 ± 37.1 87.2 ± 45.0 0.507 
Creatinine clearance (ml/min) 101.5 ± 43.5 89.2 ± 32.7 0.087 
Microalbuminuria (mg/l) 13.0 (4.3–37.8) 12.0 (6.5–36.2) 0.663 
Low creatinine clearance (%) 16.1 17.5 0.837 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130.9 ± 20.6 131.0 ± 18.7 0.989 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75.5 ± 12.1 74.5 ± 9.6 0.636 
High blood pressure (%) 64.3 60.7 0.696 
Self-reported hypertension (%) 63.5 61.7 0.834 
Neuropathy (%) 30.2 47.4 0.053 
Retinopathy (%) 22.2 48.1 0.005 
Deprivation
P
Less deprived
More deprived
EPICES ≤38.5EPICES >38.5
Age (years) 57.5 ± 13.5 61.3 ± 12.9 0.121 
Male sex (%) 58.7 43.3 0.088 
One-day hospitalization (%) 71.4 45.0 0.003* 
Diabetes history (years) 10.3 ± 9.2 11.1 ± 8.1 0.198 
BMI (kg/m227.9 ± 5.7 29.3 ± 5.4 0.175 
Obesity (%) 29.5 40.4 0.216 
A1C (%) 8.83 ± 2.36 10.57 ± 2.64 <0.001 
A1C class (%)   0.007 
    5.0–6.5 13.8 5.4  
    6.6–8.0 29.3 12.5  
    >8.0 56.9 82.1  
High A1C (%) 56.9 82.1 0.003 
Glucose (g/l) 1.41 ± 0.53 1.71 ± 0.68 0.009 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.22 ± 1.00 5.09 ± 1.16 0.495 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.37 ± 0.54 1.28 ± 0.53 0.370 
Triglycerides (g/l) 1.42 ± 0.74 1.72 ± 1.20 0.098 
Hypertriglyceridemia (%) 14.3 28.8 0.050 
Hb (g/l) 13.5 ± 1.5 12.8 ± 1.8 0.023 
Anemia (%) 19.0 35.0 0.046 
Creatinemia (μmol/l) 83.3 ± 37.1 87.2 ± 45.0 0.507 
Creatinine clearance (ml/min) 101.5 ± 43.5 89.2 ± 32.7 0.087 
Microalbuminuria (mg/l) 13.0 (4.3–37.8) 12.0 (6.5–36.2) 0.663 
Low creatinine clearance (%) 16.1 17.5 0.837 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130.9 ± 20.6 131.0 ± 18.7 0.989 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75.5 ± 12.1 74.5 ± 9.6 0.636 
High blood pressure (%) 64.3 60.7 0.696 
Self-reported hypertension (%) 63.5 61.7 0.834 
Neuropathy (%) 30.2 47.4 0.053 
Retinopathy (%) 22.2 48.1 0.005 

Data are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) by t test and χ2 tests, unless otherwise indicated.

P < 0.05,

P < 0.10, after adjustment for Bonferroni correction (10 principal outcomes).

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