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Table 2—

Results for overall PACIC scale and subscales by patient characteristics (n = 336)

Patient groupPatient activationDelivery system/practice designGoal setting/tailoringFollow-up/coordinationProblem solving/contextualSignificance of differences (P value)All items
All respondents 3.6 ± 1.1a1 3.5 ± 0.9a2 3.0 ± 1.0b1 2.9 ± 1.0b2 3.4 ± 1.1c <0.001 3.2 ± 0.9 
    Subgroup        
        Sex      0.233  
            Men 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
            Women 3.6 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.2  3.3 ± 1.0 
        Ethnicity      0.319  
            Latino 3.6 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.2  3.4 ± 0.9 
            Non-Latino 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
        Annual income      0.883  
            <$30,000/year 3.5 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1  3.3 ± 0.9 
            ≥$30,000/year 3.6 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
        Chronic conditions (in addition to type 2 diabetes)      0.337  
            <2 3.7 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.0  3.3 ± 0.9 
            ≥2 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.2  3.2 ± 1.0 
Patient groupPatient activationDelivery system/practice designGoal setting/tailoringFollow-up/coordinationProblem solving/contextualSignificance of differences (P value)All items
All respondents 3.6 ± 1.1a1 3.5 ± 0.9a2 3.0 ± 1.0b1 2.9 ± 1.0b2 3.4 ± 1.1c <0.001 3.2 ± 0.9 
    Subgroup        
        Sex      0.233  
            Men 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
            Women 3.6 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.2  3.3 ± 1.0 
        Ethnicity      0.319  
            Latino 3.6 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 0.8 3.3 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.2  3.4 ± 0.9 
            Non-Latino 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
        Annual income      0.883  
            <$30,000/year 3.5 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1  3.3 ± 0.9 
            ≥$30,000/year 3.6 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1  3.2 ± 0.9 
        Chronic conditions (in addition to type 2 diabetes)      0.337  
            <2 3.7 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.0  3.3 ± 0.9 
            ≥2 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.0 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.2  3.2 ± 1.0 

a1, a2Significantly different from goal setting/tailoring (P < 0.001), follow-up/coordination (P < 0.001), and problem solving/contextual (a1P = 0.015, a2P = 0.005). b1, b2Significantly different from patient activation (P < 0.001), delivery system/practice design (P < 0.001), and problem solving/contextual (b1P = 0.004, b2P < 0.001). cSignificantly different from patient activation (P = 0.015), delivery system/practice design (P = 0.005), goal setting/tailoring (P = 0.004), and follow-up/coordination (P < 0.001).

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