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Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of study subjects

NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaOvert nephropathyP
n 888 326 266 — 
Sex (% female) 56.7 57.9 52.4 0.367 
Age (years) 58.8 ± 11.6 62.0 ± 11.8 63.6 ± 11.2 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 7.7 ± 5.8 10.0 ± 6.9 14.4 ± 8.5 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m225.5 ± 3.6 25.8 ± 4.0 24.8 ± 3.9 0.004 
WHR 0.94 ± 0.08 0.95 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.08 0.102 
SBP (mmHg) 138 ± 21 150 ± 20 156 ± 20 <0.0001 
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 12 88 ± 13 88 ± 13 <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 9.0 ± 3.1 9.9 ± 3.6 10.5 ± 4.0 <0.0001 
A1C (%) 8.2 ± 2.1 8.8 ± 2.1 9.0 ± 2.3 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.06 ± 1.09 5.26 ± 1.15 5.46 ± 1.39 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.72 ± 1.88 2.02 ± 1.61 2.50 ± 5.70 0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.20 ± 0.34 1.16 ± 0.30 1.12 ± 0.32 0.002 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.07 ± 0.88 3.21 ± 1.00 3.31 ± 0.98 0.001 
Uric acid (μmol/l) 333 ± 89 357 ± 101 410 ± 113 <0.001 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 80 ± 27 80 ± 18 150 ± 115 <0.0001 
Smokers (%) 20.0 21.7 21.4 0.780 
Diabetes medication (%)    <0.0001 
    Oral hypoglycemic agent 93.6 86.5 67.2  
    Insulin 1.4 5.3 12.0  
    Oral hypoglycemic agent + insulin 5.0 8.2 20.8  
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaOvert nephropathyP
n 888 326 266 — 
Sex (% female) 56.7 57.9 52.4 0.367 
Age (years) 58.8 ± 11.6 62.0 ± 11.8 63.6 ± 11.2 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 7.7 ± 5.8 10.0 ± 6.9 14.4 ± 8.5 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m225.5 ± 3.6 25.8 ± 4.0 24.8 ± 3.9 0.004 
WHR 0.94 ± 0.08 0.95 ± 0.07 0.95 ± 0.08 0.102 
SBP (mmHg) 138 ± 21 150 ± 20 156 ± 20 <0.0001 
DBP (mmHg) 83 ± 12 88 ± 13 88 ± 13 <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 9.0 ± 3.1 9.9 ± 3.6 10.5 ± 4.0 <0.0001 
A1C (%) 8.2 ± 2.1 8.8 ± 2.1 9.0 ± 2.3 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.06 ± 1.09 5.26 ± 1.15 5.46 ± 1.39 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.72 ± 1.88 2.02 ± 1.61 2.50 ± 5.70 0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.20 ± 0.34 1.16 ± 0.30 1.12 ± 0.32 0.002 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.07 ± 0.88 3.21 ± 1.00 3.31 ± 0.98 0.001 
Uric acid (μmol/l) 333 ± 89 357 ± 101 410 ± 113 <0.001 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 80 ± 27 80 ± 18 150 ± 115 <0.0001 
Smokers (%) 20.0 21.7 21.4 0.780 
Diabetes medication (%)    <0.0001 
    Oral hypoglycemic agent 93.6 86.5 67.2  
    Insulin 1.4 5.3 12.0  
    Oral hypoglycemic agent + insulin 5.0 8.2 20.8  

Data are means ± SD. See definition of normo- and microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy in research design and methods.

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